IIMM/DH/02/2006/8154, Advertising & Sales Promotion
Forms and Functions of Advertising
Advertising is considered as the backbone of the business, the advertising defines the business in well manner, andwithout advertising we cannot assume the good form of business. There are various forms of Advertising whichdefine the business and we also discuss the process functions for advertising.Advertising can take a number of forms, including advocacy, comparative, cooperative, direct-mail, informational,institutional, outdoor, persuasive,product, reminder, point-of-purchase, and specialty advertising.
Advocacy advertising is normally thought of as any advertisement, message, or publiccommunication regarding economic, political, or social issues. The advertising campaign is designed to persuade public opinion regarding a specific issue important in the public arena. The ultimate goal of advocacy advertisingusually relates to the passage of pending state or federal legislation. Almost all nonprofit groups use some form of advocacy advertising to influence the public's attitude toward a particular issue. One of the largest and most powerful nonprofit advocacy groups is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). The AARP fights to protect social programs such as Medicare and Social Security for senior citizens by encouraging its members towrite their legislators, using television advertisements to appeal to emotions, and publishing a monthly newsletter describing recent state and federal legislative action. Other major nonprofit advocacy groups include theenvironmental organization Green-peace, Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), and the National RifleAssociation (NRA).
Comparative advertising compares one brand directly or indirectly with one or morecompeting brands. This advertising technique is very common and is used by nearly every major industry, includingairlines and automobile manufacturers. One drawback of comparative advertising is that customers have becomemore skeptical about claims made by a company about its competitors because accurate information has not always been provided, thus making the effectiveness of comparison advertising questionable. In addition, companies thatengage in comparative advertising must be careful not tomisinformthe public about a competitor's product.Incorrect or misleading information may trigger a lawsuit by theaggrievedcompany or regulatory action by agovernmental agency such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Cooperative advertising is a system that allows two parties to share advertising costs.Manufacturers and distributors, because of their shared interest in selling the product, usually use this cooperativeadvertising technique. An example might be when a soft-drink manufacturer and a local grocery store split the costof advertising the manufacturer's soft drinks; both the manufacturer and the store benefit from increased store trafficand its associated sales. Cooperative advertising is especially appealing to small storeowners who, on their own,could not afford to advertise the product adequately.
Catalogues, flyers, letters, and postcards are just a few of the direct-mail advertisingoptions. Direct-mail advertising has several advantages, including detail of information, personalization, selectivity,and speed. But while direct mail has advantages, it carries an expensive per-head price, is dependent on theappropriateness of the mailing list, and is resented by some customers, who consider it "junk mail."
In informational advertising, which is used when a new product is first beingintroduced, the emphasis is on promoting the product name, benefits, and possible uses. Car manufacturers used thisstrategy when sport utility vehicles (SUVs) were first introduced.
Institutional advertising takes a much broader approach, concentrating on the benefits,concept, idea, or philosophy of a particular industry. Companies often use it to promote image-building activities,such an environmentally friendly business practices or new community-based programs that it sponsors.Institutional advertising is closely related to public relations, since both are interested in promoting a positive imageof the company to the public. As an example, a large lumber company may develop an advertising theme around its practice of planting trees in areas where they have just been harvested. A theme of this nature keeps the company'sname in a positive light with the general public because thereplantingof trees is viewed positively by most people.
Marketing Lesson Plans
This course offers a comprehensive overview of the field of marketing from a domestic and international viewpoint. Marketing analysis and segmentation, market research, types of consumers, 4Ps of marketing, advertising, selling, and careers in marketing are among the wide range of topics that will be discussed. Different aspects of advertising will be researched and evaluated that will include television, radio, print media, and the Internet. The emerging role that information technology plays within marketing will also be covered. Students will be required to “think critically” and draw conclusions based on different marketing situations.