Hindi Language Essay On Corruption In Pakistan

Corruption is any act of dishonesty or unethical conduct by an individual entrusted with a position of power. Several people especially young students have a lot of curiosity to know in detail about corruption and its repercussions; more so because it is impacting our country’s economic growth and prosperity. Our speech on corruption especially long speech on corruption shares the detailed information on the topic. Short speech on corruption can be used as a sample if you want to prepare for a debate. The language used in the corruption speech is so simple that even a child can understand the meaning and so impactful that it can help you leave an impact on your audience.

Speech on Corruption

Speech on Corruption – 1

Warm Greetings and Good Afternoon to my esteemed class teacher and students!

The speech topic for today is corruption and I will address my viewpoint on the same, particularly on political corruption. Ever since the formation of our country, everything is dictated by the political leaders and people ruling in the government sectors. Apparently we are a democratic country, but whosoever comes into the power tries to misuse that power for his/her personal gains, for acquiring wealth and luxury. The common people, as always, find themselves in a state of deprivation.

In our country, the gap between the haves and have-nots is so huge that it becomes a clear example of corruption in our country where one section of society acquires richness and wealth and on the other hand the majority of the masses remain below the poverty line. This is the reason why economy of certain nations is facing a decline, such as the USA economy.

If we are a responsible citizen of our country, we should understand that this corruption is eating into our nation’s economical growth like a termite and is giving rise to crime in our society. If the majority section of our society will continue to live in deprivation and poverty and will not find any employment opportunity, the crime rate will never come down. Poverty will destroy people’s ethics and morals and would result in an increase in hatred amongst the people. It is high time for us to address this issue and fight it in order to pave way for the holistic growth of our country.

The parliament should pass strict laws against the anti-social elements of our society, regardless of the fact that whether such people are within the political system of our country or outside it. There should be an equal treatment for all.

If one were to think and evaluate the causes behind corruption, then it could be countless. However, the most glaring reason responsible for the vicious spread of corruption, I believe, is the people’s non-serious attitude towards the governmental rules and laws and the sheer inertia of government towards those who spread evil in society. It appears that the ones who are employed to put an end to corruption have themselves become complicit in the crime and are encouraging it. Though there are various strict laws like the Prevention of money Laundering Act; Indian Penal Code of 1860 and the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988; to name a few, but there is no serious implementation of these laws.

Yet another important reason behind corruption is the non-transparency of bureaucratic and governmental functions. In particular, the institutions that are run under the government show moral laxity and brush under the carpet serious issues. The money that should be used for the upliftment of poor people is gobbled up by the politicians themselves. Even worse, the people who are not affluent and cannot bribe the people in power are not able to get their work done and hence their files are fated to meet the dust instead of stimulating action. Clearly, any growing economy would come falling down when corrupt officials hold the reign of a country.

The situation has become very tense and unless the general public takes proactive measures and becomes vigilant, the corruption cannot be uprooted from our society. So come let’s join hands and fight against corruption.

Thank You!

Speech on Corruption – 2

Warm Greetings to our Respected Principal, Vice Principal, Fellow Colleagues and My Dear Students!

I, one of the senior faculty members of History Department, welcome you all on the eve of Independence Day Celebration. Amidst celebration and gaiety, it has been thought fit by the faculty members to address some serious issue that our nation is suffering with and which is primarily corruption.

Though our great Indian freedom fighters won the freedom struggle ages back, but serious issues such as corruption, unemployment, poverty, etc are still eating into our country’s economy and not enabling it to grow. Where does the problem lie – in the governance or society as a whole? We need to identify those grey areas which lead to the spread of corruption and adopt strict measures for eradicating those causes. Winning independence from the British rule was one thing, but we will only be able to make this freedom worth their efforts when every citizen of this country will be able to enjoy a basic standard of living and there will be no iniquity in our society.

No doubt, our country is a land of nature and vivid landscape; however the beauty and goodwill of our land has been marred by the ensuing corrupt activities that are going all around. Nearly in every sector, we can see corrupt personnel who do not deliver their roles and responsibilities well unless are bribed by the common people. Such illegal activities are going day by day for a simple reason that we, as the natives of this country, are encouraging these people and no strict actions are being taken against them.

Moreover, such people think that they can easily escape the laws and go unscathed. Excess of power and money have corrupted the officials and the situation has become so worse that if a common man needs any assistance or help from the government staff or administration, then he/she will have to adopt the corrupt method. In fact, you would find corrupt people in the senior administration to the junior staff and even at the clerical positions. It is really difficult for a common man to evade them and get his/her work done.

Not only cities, but even small towns and villages have come under its influence. I think it’s high time, when we as a citizen of our country should owe this responsibility to wipe out corruption from the face of our mother earth and make our country a corrupt free land for our next generation and to feel proud of it.

Clearly, our students are the future of this country, so you should pledge to never adopt any corrupt path under any situation and in fact you will raise your voice against any unlawful or illegal activity that takes place around. Problems aggravate when we turn a blind towards them, but I sincerely hope that from now on each one of us will strictly oppose and prevent corrupt activities from happening anywhere in our country and expose such officials too who act as a blockage in the development of our country.

Thank You!

Speech on Corruption – 3

Good Morning respect Principal, teachers and my dear friends,

Today’s topic for this Assembly meeting is, ‘Corruption’. A poison that ruins the value of individuals and the country.

My perspective as to what corruption means is that, it is an act performed deliberately that reduces the authenticity and quality of the nation. People explain corruption as one simple thing statement, ‘I had some urgency and had to get this thing done quickly’. But my dear friends, this simple statement is so damaging that it directly hits on the country’s image and stature in the world.

We as individuals should understand that even though by giving money for getting our work done helps us in quick execution but deep within it is deteriorating the quality of our life. It builds a bad image of the country and leads to lowering of our country’s ratings. It does not seem to be a big deed that we pay an extra amount or what I may say as bribe to some people for taking some advantage from them. But, believe me that deep down, it kills the ethical traits or values of the people.

This inherited value reduction is not only of the person who is taking the bribe but also of the person who gives it. Corruption is the hurdle between the country’s and individual’s authentic prosperity and development. It affects the growth and development of the nation in all aspects like socially, economically and politically.

Corruption is also the unfair use of public power for some private advantages by breaking all or few of the rules and regulations made by the government. One common form of corruption in our country is receiving black money in cash. Even during elections, it has been observed that we see many news on raid being done here at some minister’s premises and then on the other day so much of cash found in this minister’s wardrobe. Haven’t we?

Yes, we have these all are the forms of corruption. Many political leaders say that we wish to eradicate corruption, but honestly I haven’t seen concrete efforts coming for this cause. For controlling corruption, we have to work on the root cause. This corruption in deep inside the roots of our country and eradicating this is a huge activity or a project that requires complete dedication with purity at heart.

Strict actions should be documented in policies and should necessarily be implemented on those who practice corruption for their greed.

Thank you everyone for being a part of this Assembly session. I am glad that we chose this important topic as our discussion point. I request you all to please make it a habit to stop corruption exactly there itself. We should not be selfish and just think about our convenience. I hope that you all will help me and our nation to control this ugly act of corruption.

Thank You! Have a great Day! We have to end corruption!


 

Speech on Corruption – 4

Good evening everyone! Thanks for being a part of this occasion and taking out time to be a part of it.

My discussion for this evening is on the cancer of ‘Corruption’ that has made our life sick. Corruption is an illegal behavior on the measurement of an authority or influential party throughout by means that are illegal, depraved, or irreconcilable with principled values. Though this word is so simple to define but too hard to take out from any country. Corruption is the biggest act that makes the country’s image weak and negative.

Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement of funds. Corruption has impacted Indian economy and government so much that there are no easy solutions for eradicating it. If the citizens of a country are corrupted then it eventually adds to the loss of values of a country. We don’t realize that what we do, at the end becomes a part of where we live and around whom we live.

Corrupt people always tend to hide themselves behind the fake face of truth and honesty. Most of the time corruption is referred to the bureaucratic-political-police nexus that eats into the vitals of democracy.

Corruption starts mostly at the higher levels and it carries its way to the extreme low levels too. The heights of corruption has reached to a very great extent where there are no proper laws to bring to justice these corrupt people. Because of the highly corrupt people who just would do anything for money, it has become very difficult for the common man or the righteous to survive.

The level of corruption can be as low as bribing traffic police officer for not wearing a helmet to the extreme level when private contractors bribe government individuals to get the tender of a public work or to get the job done. Today, corruption is one of the greatest factors hindering development and stifling the realization of democracy. Corruption affects the growth of a nation adversely.

We all should understand that corruption is acting as an obstacle in the way of the country’s progress. Each one of us should be cautious of the acts that we perform. We take it lightly to give Rs 100-200 to the Travelling Ticket Inspector (TTI) just for our preferable seat allocation, but deep down that person has made it a habit to procure money from everybody.

Thank you for being a part of this conversation. As a conclusion to my session I would just like to tell you all that corrupt is not only the one who receives the illegal money but also the one who is providing the bribe. I hope that from now onwards, you all will not bribe anyone and control others as well. We see things as small deeds, but these small deeds at the end add up to create awareness against corruption.

Thank you!! Have a great day and keep sharing this message of making our country corruption free.

Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀپنجابی‬

'Punjabi' written in Shahmukhi (top) and Gurmukhi (bottom) scripts

Pronunciation
Native toPunjab region
EthnicityPunjabis

Native speakers

122 million, including Eastern and Western Punjabi variants.[1][2] (2015 71 18 11)[3]

Language family

Standard forms

Majhi

Dialects

Writing system

Gurmukhi
Perso-Arabic(Shahmukhi)
Punjabi Braille
Laṇḍā (historical)
Official status

Official language in

 Pakistan (Punjab)[4]
 India (Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi )
Language codes
ISO 639-1
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3Either:
 – Eastern Punjabi
 – Western Punjabi
Glottolog  Punjabi[5]
Linguasphere
Countries of the world where Punjabi is spoken

  50,000,000 - 80,000,000

  1,000,000 - 50,000,000

  500,000 - 1,000,000

  200,000 - 500,000

  100,000 - 200,000

  50,000 - 100,000

  1,000 - 50,000

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Punjabi (;[6]Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀpañjābī; Shahmukhi: پنجابی‬paṉjābī)[7] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015)[8][9] in the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, who associate with the historical Punjab region of India and Pakistan. Among Indo-European languages, it is unusual due to the use of lexical tone.[10][11][12]

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan,[13] the 11th most widely spoken in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. Punjabi is the fifth most-spoken native language (after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese) in Canada. It also has a significant presence in the United Arab Emirates, United States, United Kingdom and Australia. The Punjab is one of the relatively few regions in the world with a situation of digraphia; Punjabi is written in both the Shahmukhi and the Gurmukhi scripts; the former mainly by Muslims, the latter mainly by Sikhs and Hindus.

History[edit]

Main article: History of the Punjabi language

Etymology[edit]

The word Punjabi has been derived from the word Panj-āb, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors[14] of South Asia. Panj is cognate with Sanskritपञ्च (pañca) and Greekπέντε (pénte) "five", and "āb" is cognate with Sanskrit अप् (áp) and with the Av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries. One of the five, the Beas River, is a tributary of another, the Sutlej.

Origin[edit]

Punjabi developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit languages and later Apabhraṃśa (Sanskrit: अपभ्रंश; corruption or corrupted speech)[15] From 600 BC Sanskrit gave birth to many regional languages in different parts of India. All these languages are called Prakrit (Sanskrit: प्राकृत prākṛta) collectively. Shauraseni Prakrit was one of these Prakrit languages, which was spoken in north and north-western India and Punjabi and western dialects of Hindi developed from this Prakrit. Later in northern India Shauraseni Prakrit gave rise to Shauraseni Aparbhsha, a descendent of Prakrit. Punjabi emerged as an Apabhramsha, a degenerated form of Prakrit, in the 7th century A.D. and became stable by the 10th century. By the 10th century, many Nath poets were associated with earlier Punjabi works.[16][17][17][18][18]

Arabic and Persian influence on Punjabi[edit]

Arabic and Persian influence in the historical Punjab region began with the late first millennium Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent.[19] The Persian language was introduced in the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. Many Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi.[20] Punjabi has more Persian and Arabic vocabulary than Bengali, Marathi, and Gujarati due to the proximity of the Punjab with western Asia.[21] It is noteworthy that the Hindustani language divided into Hindi, with more Sanskritisation, and Urdu, with more Persianisation, but in Punjabi both Sanskrit and Persian words are used with a liberal approach to language. Later, it was influenced by Portuguese and English, though these influences have been minor in comparison to Persian and Arabic. However, in India, English words in the official language are more widespread than Hindi.[22]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the eleventh -most widely spoken in India and spoken Punjabi diaspora in various countries.

Pakistan[edit]

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan. Punjabi is the provincial language in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. About 70.0% of the people of Pakistan speak Punjabi as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language.[citation needed]Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province of Pakistan, is the largest Punjabi-speaking city in the world. Moreover, Punjabi first-language (native) speakers constitute 86%, 72%, and 98% of the population in Lahore, Islamabad, and Faisalabad.[citation needed], and there are large numbers of Punjabi speakers in Karachi.

YearPopulation of PakistanPercentagePunjabi speakers
195133,740,16757.08%22,632,905
196142,880,37856.39%28,468,282
197265,309,34056.11%43,176,004
198184,253,64448.17%40,584,980
1998132,352,27944.15%58,433,431

Beginning with the 1981 census, speakers of Saraiki and Hindko were no longer included in the total numbers for Punjabi, which could explain the apparent decrease.

India[edit]

See also: States of India by Punjabi speakers

Punjabi is spoken as a native language, second language, or third language by about 30 million people in India. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi. Some of its major urban centres in northern India are Ambala, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Chandigarh, Jalandhar, and Delhi.

YearPopulation of IndiaPunjabi speakers in IndiaPercentage
1971548,159,65214,108,4432.57%
1981665,287,84919,611,1992.95%
1991838,583,98823,378,7442.79%
20011,028,610,32829,102,4772.83%

Punjabi diaspora[edit]

Main article: Punjabi diaspora

Punjabi is also spoken as a minority language in several other countries where Punjabi people have emigrated in large numbers, such as the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada, where it is the fourth-most-commonly used language.[25] There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008,[26] 33 million in India in 2011,[27] 368,000 in Canada in 2006,[28] and smaller numbers in other countries.

Official status[edit]

Despite Punjabi's rich literary history, it was not until 1947 that it would be recognized as an official language. Previous governments in the area of the Punjab had favoured Persian, Hindustani, or even earlier standardised versions of local registers as the language of the court or government. After the annexation of the Sikh Empire by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, the British policy of establishing a uniform language for administration was expanded into the Punjab. The British Empire employed Hindi and Urdu in its administration of North-Central and North-West India, while in the North-East of India, Bengali was used as the language of administration. Despite its lack of official sanction, the Punjabi language continued to flourish as an instrument of cultural production, with rich literary traditions continuing until modern times. The Sikh religion, with its Gurmukhi script, played a special role in standardising and providing education in the language via Gudwaras, while writers of all religions continued to produce poetry, prose, and literature in the language.

In India, Punjabi is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It is the first official language of the Indian State of Punjab. Punjabi also has second language official status in Delhi along with Urdu, and in Haryana. In Pakistan, no regional ethnic language has been granted official status at the national level, and as such Punjabi is not an official language at the national level, even though it is the most spoken language in Pakistan after Urdu. It is, however, the official provincial language of Punjab, Pakistan, the second largest and the most populous province of Pakistan as well as in Islamabad Capital Territory. The only two official national languages in Pakistan are Urdu and English, which are considered the lingua francas of Pakistan.

Modern Punjabi[edit]

Standard Punjabi[edit]

  • Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Islamabad to Delhi. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in Pakistan and India for education, media etc. The Majhi (in Shahmukhi ماجھی، in Gurumukhi ਮਾਝੀ) dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists central districts of Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar and Gurdaspur regions, known. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar.
  • In India technical words in Standard Punjabi are loaned from Sanskrit similarly to other major Indian languages, but it generously uses Arabic, Persian, and English words also in the official language. In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurumukhī script in offices, schools, and media. Gurumukhi is considered the standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Devanagari or Latin scripts due to influence from Hindi and English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.
  • In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi loans technical words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu does.

Major dialects[edit]

Majhi (Standard Punjabi)[edit]

Majhi is Punjabi's prestige dialect because it is standard of written Punjabi. It is spoken in the heart of Punjab which include Lahore, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Kasur, Wazirabad, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat, Okara, Nankana Sahib, Faisalabad, Wazirabad, Sialkot, Narowal, Gujrat, Jhelum, Pakpattan, Vehari, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Hafizabad, Mandi Bahauddin and Chiniot districts of Pakistan's Punjab Province along with some major cities.

In India Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib, and Gurdaspur Districts of the State of Punjab and sizable population also in major cities of the States of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Mumbai India.

In Pakistan Standard Punjabi dialect is not called Majhi which is Indian terminology, in Pakistan it is simply called Standard Punjabi. This dialect is used for both Punjabi Films, TV and Theater industry to make Punjabi language content in Lahore.

Shahpuri[edit]

Shahpuri dialect (also known as Sargodha dialect) is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District (now Shahpur Tehsil, being part of Sargodha District). It is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts and also spoken in neighbouring Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Sindh River to Chennab river crossing Jehlam river.[29]

Malwai[edit]

Malwai is spoken in the eastern part of Indian Punjab and also in Bahawalnagar and Vehari districts of Pakistan. Main areas are Ludhiana, Patiala, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Fazilka, Ferozepur, Moga. Malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It also includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Hissar, Sirsa, Kurukshetra etc. Not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name.

Doabi[edit]

Doabi is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to post-1947 migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word "Do Aabi" means "the land between two rivers" and this dialect was historically spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej in the region called Doaba. Regions it is presently spoken includes the Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Kapurthala districts in Indian Punjab, specifically in the areas known as the Dona and Manjki, as well as the Toba Tek Singh and Faisalabad districts in Pakistan Punjab where the dialect is known as Faisalabadi Punjabi.

This Dialect is also used as a standard for Indian Punjabi Films and TV shows.

Pwadhi[edit]

Pwadhi, Powadh, Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers. The part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District (Haryana) is Powadhi. The Powadh extends from that part of the Rupnagar District which lies near Satluj to beyond the Ghaggar river in the east up to Kala Amb, which is at the border of the states of Himachal pradesh and Haryana. Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are also part of Powadh. The language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. In Punjab, Kharar, Kurali, Ropar, Nurpurbedi, Morinda, Pail, Rajpura and Samrala are the areas where the Puadhi is spoken and the dialect area also includes Pinjore, Kalka, Ismailabad, Pehowa to Bangar area in Fatehabad district.

Jhangochi/Changvi[edit]

Jhangochi (جھنگوچی) dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Hafizabad district.

Jangli/Rachnavi[edit]

Jangli is a dialect of former nomad tribes of areas whose names are often suffixed with 'Bar' derived from jungle bar before irrigation system arrived in the start of the 20th century, for example, Sandal Bar, Kirana Bar, Neeli Bar, Ganji Bar. Former Layllpur and western half of Montgomary district used to speak this dialect.

Chenavari[edit]

West of Chenaab river in Jhang district of Pakistani Punjab the dialect of Jhangochi merges with Thalochi and resultant dialect is Chenavari. Name is derived from Chenaab river.

Phonology[edit]

The long vowels (the vowels with [ː]) also have nasal analogues.

Tone[edit]

Punjabi has three phonemically distinct tones that developed from the lost murmured (or "voiced aspirate") series of consonants. Phonetically the tones are rising or rising-falling contours and they can span over one syllable or two, but phonemically they can be distinguished as high, mid, and low.

A historical murmured consonant (voiced aspirate consonant) in word initial position became tenuis and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: ghoṛā[kòːɽɑ̀ː] "horse". A stem-final murmured consonant became modally voiced and left a high tone on the two syllables preceding it: māgh[mɑ́ːɡ] "October". A stem-medial murmured consonant which appeared after a short vowel and before a long vowel became modally voiced and left a low tone on the two syllables following it: maghāuṇā[məɡɑ̀ːʊ̀ɳɑ̀ː] "to have something lit". Other syllables have mid tone.[31]

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Punjabi grammar

The grammar of the Punjabi language concerns the word order, case marking, verb conjugation, and other morphological and syntactic structures of the Punjabi language. The main article discusses the grammar of Modern Standard Punjabi as defined by the sources cited therein.

Writing systems[edit]

Main articles: Shahmukhī alphabet, Gurmukhī alphabet, and Punjabi braille

Punjabi has two major writing systems in use: Gurmukhi, which is a Brahmic script derived from the Laṇḍā script,[32] and Shahmukhi, which is an Arabic script. The word Gurmukhi means "from the Guru's mouth",[33] and Shahmukhi means "from the King's mouth".[34]

In the Punjab province of Pakistan, the script used is Shahmukhi and differs from the Urdu alphabet in having four additional letters.[35] In the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi and other parts of India, the Gurmukhī script is generally used for writing Punjabi.[35] Historically, various local Brahmic scripts including Laṇḍā were also in use.[36]

Sample text[edit]

This sample text was taken from the Punjabi Wikipedia article on Lahore.

Gurmukhi:

ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨੀ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਦੀ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ ਹੈ । ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਕਰਾਚੀ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਲਹੌਰ ਦੂਜਾ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਡਾ ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਸਿਆਸੀ, ਰਹਤਲੀ ਤੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਾਈ ਦਾ ਗੜ੍ਹ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਇਸ ਲਈ ਇਹਨੂੰ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦਾ ਦਿਲ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ । ਲਹੌਰ ਦਰਿਆ-ਏ-ਰਾਵੀ ਦੇ ਕੰਢੇ ਤੇ ਵਸਦਾ ਹੈ । ਤੇ ਇਸਦੀ ਲੋਕ ਗਿਣਤੀ ਇੱਕ ਕਰੋੜ ਦੇ ਨੇੜੇ ਹੈ ।

Shahmukhi:

لہور پاکستانی پنجاب دا دارالحکومت اے۔ لوک گنتی دے نال کراچی توں بعد لاهور دوجا سبھ توں وڈا شہر اے۔ لاهور پاکستان دا سیاسی، رہتلی تے پڑھائی دا گڑھ اے تے اس لئی ایھنوں پاکستان دا دل وی کیھا جاندا اے۔ لاهور دریاۓ راوی دے کنڈھے تے وسدا ۔ اے اسدی لوک گنتی اک کروڑ دے نیڑے اے ۔‬

Transliteration: lahaur pākistānī panjāb dī rājdā̀ni ài. lok giṇtī de nāḷ karācī tõ bāad lahaur dūjā sáb tõ vaḍḍā šáir ài. lahor pākistān dā siāsī, rátalī te paṛā̀ī dā gáṛ ài te is laī ínū̃ pākistān dā dil vī kihā jāndā ài. lahaur dariāe rāvī de kaṇḍè te vasdā ài. te isdī lok giṇtī ikk karoṛ de neṛe ài.

Translation: Lahore is the capital city of the Pakistani Punjab. After a number of people from Karachi, Lahore is the second largest city. Lahore is Pakistan's political stronghold and education capital and so it is also the heart of Pakistan. Lahore lies on the bank of the Ravi River. And, its population is close to ten million people.

IPA:[lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ pāːkɪ̄st̪āːnīː pə̄̃d͡ʒāːb d̪īː ɾāːd͡ʒt̪àːnɪ̄ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lōk ɡɪ̄ɳt̪īː d̪ē nāːl kə̄ɾāːt͡ʃīː t̪ō̃ bāːə̄d̪ lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ d̪ūːd͡ʒāː sə́p t̪ō̃ ʋːə̄ɖāː ʃə̄ɦɪ̄ɾ ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ pāːkɪ̄st̪āːn d̪āː sɪ̄āːsīː | ɾə́ɦt̪ə̄līː t̪ē pə̄ɽɦàːīː d̪āː ɡə́ɽɦ ɦɛ̀ː t̪ē ɪ̄s lə̄īː ɪ́ɦnū̃ pāːkɪ̄st̪āːn d̪āː d̪ɪ̄l ʋīː kɪ̄ɦāː d͡ʒā̃ːd̪āː ɦɛ̀ː ‖ lə̄ɦɔ̄ːɾ d̪ə̄ɾɪ̄āːē ɾāːʋīː d̪ē kə̄̃ʈè t̪ē ʋə̄̃sd̪īː ɦɛ̀ː ‖ t̪ē īsd̪īː lōk ɡɪ̄ɳt̪īː ɪ̄kː kə̄ɾōɽ d̪ē nēɽē ɦɛ̀ː ‖]

Literature development[edit]

Main article: Punjabi literature

Medieval era, Mughal and Sikh period[edit]

  • The Sikh religion originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region and Punjabi is the predominant language spoken by Sikhs.[38] Most portions of the Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi language written in Gurmukhi, though Punjabi is not the only language used in Sikh scriptures.

The Janamsakhis (ਜਨਮਸਾਖੀ, جنم ساکھی‬), stories on the life and legend of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), are early examples of Punjabi prose literature.

  • The Punjabi language is famous for its rich literature of qisse (ਕਿੱਸੇ, قصّے‬), most of the which are about love, passion, betrayal, sacrifice, social values and a common man's revolt against a larger system. The qissa of Heer Ranjha by Waris Shah (1706–1798) is among the most popular of Punjabi qissas. Other popular stories include Sohni Mahiwal by Fazal Shah, Mirza Sahiban by Hafiz Barkhudar (1658–1707), Sassui Punnhun by Hashim Shah (c. 1735–c. 1843), and Qissa Puran Bhagat by Qadaryar (1802–1892).[citation needed]
  • Heroic ballads known as Vaar(ਵਾਰ, وار‬) enjoy a rich oral tradition in Punjabi. Famous Vaars areChandi di Var (1666–1708), Nadir Shah Di Vaar by Najabat,Jangnama of Shah Mohammad (1780–1862).[39]

British Raj era and post-independence period[edit]

The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (1897–1971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Puran Singh (1881–1931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (1876–1957), Diwan Singh (1897–1944) and Ustad Daman (1911–1984), Mohan Singh (1905–78) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan, whereas Amrita Pritam (1919–2005), Jaswant Singh Rahi (1930–1996), Shiv Kumar Batalvi (1936–1973), Surjit Patar (1944–) and Pash (1950–1988) are some of the more prominent poets and writers from India.

In Pakistan[edit]

When Pakistan was created in 1947, although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the national languages. The selection of Urdu was due to its association with South Asian Muslim nationalism and because the leaders of the new nation wanted a unifying national language instead of promoting one ethnic group's language over another. Broadcasting in Punjabi language by Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation decreased on TV and radio after 1947. Article 251 of the Constitution of Pakistan

Map showing the geographical distribution of Punjabis in Pakistan in parrot green colour.
A book cover from Pakistan, written in Shahmukhi script, which is used in Pakistan.
Areas of the Indian subcontinent where Punjabi is spoken.
Some Punjabi distinct tones for gh, jh, dh, dh, bh
Sufi poets have enriched Punjabi literature

0 Thoughts to “Hindi Language Essay On Corruption In Pakistan

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *