Assignment Of D.El.Ed Course

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-503. I hope this can help you through your assignment.

ASSIGNMENT REFERENCE MATERIAL (2017-18)

Course-503

LEARNING LANGUAGES AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL

ASSIGNMENT-I

Q1. Explain the meaning of ‘fine motor skills’. How these skills can be developed in
children?

Ans. Fine motor skills involve the use of the smaller muscle of the hands, commonly in activities like using pencils, scissors, construction with Lego or duplo, doing up buttons and opening lunch boxes. Fine motor skill efficiency significantly influences the quality of the task outcome as well as the speed of task performance. Efficient fine motor skills require a number of independent skills to work together to appropriately manipulate the object or perform the task.

Fine motor skills let kids perform crucial tasks like reaching and grasping, moving objects and using tools like crayons, pencils and scissors. As kids get better at using their hands, their hand-eye coordination improves. They also learn skills they need to succeed in school, such as drawing and writing. Developing these abilities helps kids become more independent and understand how their bodies work. And as they learn how to have an impact on the world around them, their self-esteem may grow, too.

In order to encourage the development of these skills, children should be allowed to manipulate solid objects as they see fit. Holding, turning, twisting and playing with objects develops grasping ability in children. Another very important activity that provides children with enjoyment in addition to developing motor skills, essential for writing, is drawing. Therefore, children should be encouraged to draw. Children’s early drawings often resemble meaningless scribbles which later evolve into discernible shapes and figures.

Apart from drawing, some other activities that help develop the motor skills necessary for writing include games such as pouring water into a container, stringing beads and flowers, making objects out of clay or dough, etc. The home environment of the child provides him/her with enough opportunity to engage in such activities. However, this is not always the case. Therefore, it is necessary for teachers to help children engage in such activities wherever required.

Practicing Letters, Words, Sentences: Generally, it is believed that achievement of sentence writing is helped by practicing writing letters and then words again and again. This is true to a certain extent, but if children are made to engage in tedious repetition of letters and words, they may be disenchanted with writing before they even begin to write. Therefore, while individual letters and carnivals are useful in introducing children to writing, they might not be meaningful to children unless their relationship with whole words or sentences is made clear.

Two things – respecting children’s abilities and creating meaningful contexts in which they can learn are of great importance in teaching children to write. It is necessary to appreciate the fact that the child has an immense innate capability to learn language. They learn their native languages naturally through meaningful social experiences involving speaking and listening. Similarly, they grasp the rules of writing mostly through meaningful experiences involving written material.

In teaching, we often act under the assumption that children need to be told everything and that they would not understand unless they are told. This, however, is not true. It is necessary to get rid of this mindset and to start respecting the capabilities of children. Children have a unique ability to write before coming to school. It is normal for children to create figures and symbols in sand, on the floor or on paper and to make up stories about them. For them, these drawings are not meaningless, but rather they represent a unique script through which they express what they wish to say. Children should be given the opportunity to make full use of their abilities. Their learning process does not involve joining pieces of knowledge together to get the complete picture, but in fact it involves the
opposite. The whole picture is formed first, and then the specifics become clear in different ways. Unless a meaningful whole is supplied, the small specifics, such as individual letters of the varnmala or alphabet, will not make sense and will be boring.

Or

Which out of accuracy and fluency in language, you, as a language teacher, would give
priority while facilitating learning of language and why?

Ans. Accuracy is the ability to produce correct sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary. On the other hand, fluency is the ability to produce language easily and smoothly. It is very difficult to choose where accuracy should be stressed over fluency and vice versa.

The level of accuracy of a child at primary level is different from that of an adult. A child learns language by committing mistakes. A child’s errors help her in learning and simultaneously even while committing error she is following the rules of language. For instance, a 3 year old child speaks in order to express herself: Mummy khilona chahiye hai. khana chahiye hai.

The child knows that every sentence ends with the word “hai” and therefore she uses “hai” after “chahiye”. As per language rules, “chahiye” is an auxiliary verb. Another auxiliary verb “tha” is used along with “chahiye”, only in past tense. Although the child is unaware of this rule but she uses it.

In reference to the learning proficiency, fluency means the ability through which a child is spontaneously able to express herself by speaking, reading and writing. In this, emphasis is laid on meaning and context rather than on grammatical errors. Today a language teacher faces a huge dilemma, as to which out of the two should she seriously pursue? Both the perspectives are present in front of us.

Traditional teachers give greater importance to accuracy, in language learning. They force the children to read and write in correct grammatical terms. For this, they test the children through various periodic assessments. In most of the classes children are hardly given an opportunity to improve by recognizing their own errors. Examination centered approach is influenced by this accuracy based perspective.

Another group of teachers believe that language is the medium for expression of feelings and experiences. They give more importance to fluency. Instead of grammar, they lay focus on understanding the meaning and reference, along with this, they emphasize that the children speaking fluently should be able to express themselves in such a way that the listener understands it correctly. These teachers believe; that since initiation, the more the child will make use of language, the more her level of fluency will rise.

After having a look at both the perspectives, in fact, it seems that both stand correct in their own place. In order to learn language from an overall perspective, children have to be skilled in both. Reaching class 10, children start using language with fluency. It is then that we should focus on accuracy because in child’s language development, timely and appropriate help plays a very important role.

Q2. Critically analyse the strengths and limitations of any two methods through which ‘reading’ can be developed as skill among children.

Ans. Some of the methods of teaching reading and their shortcomings are as follows:

(1)  Knowing the rules of reading quickly:  Actually, there are no rules for reading. At least none that can be simplified and defined for children. All fluent readers develop the knowledge necessary to read but they develop it from the effort to read rather than by being told. This process is akin to the process of the child acquiring oral language. The child is able to develop the rules for articulation and comprehension without being taught any formal rules. There is no evidence to suggest that teaching grammar helps in making children develop the ability to speak. There is also no evidence indicating that practicing pronunciation or other non-reading tasks help in developing reading ability.

(2)  For reading, the child has to remember rules of pronunciation and follow them:  One view which is widely accepted that the ability to read comes from being able to link sound to its corresponding symbolic representation. We, however, know reading does not end or begin at being able to pronounce the text. We have to grasp the meaning even before we pronounce the word unless we know the word we cannot speak it. Converting letters to sound is not only unnecessary but also a waste of effort. If we look carefully, it is obvious that a fluent reader does not get into changing letters to sounds. Such a process does not help in making meaning; it rather takes one away from it. In spite of this, it is often argued that children will have to develop competence in pronunciation of the word, part by part, as per letters used otherwise they will not be able to recognise words they have not seen earlier.

Some of the enablers for learning to read are as follows:

(1)  Contextual reading material:  Students need context to learn language and learn to read. Stories and poems also form interesting contexts. While relating a story a teacher should stop in between and let students complete what would follow. Many important concepts are natural parts of the stories (for example- big, small, near-far, fat-thin etc.). Students acquire or consolidate them easily through a story. The context of the story introduces these and when enacted their meaning gets clearer. Besides, the student gets an opportunity to place herself in different characters and in imaginary situations. Initially students mimic and copy only the gross visible features of the characters.

(2)  Reading must be purposeful and challenging:  Reading material for students must be useful, meaningful and challenging. Whenever we read something, we read it for some purpose. These could be, for example, reading for fun, reading due to curiosity, reading to understand the sequence of events in a story, to know what happens at the end of story, to learn about, what is happening around and find whether such materials are even being written or not. If they are given challenges of this kind, challenges that give them opportunity to learn more, talk about what they have learnt and share their experiences, they will learn to read faster. If reaching the meaning of a text to find something that they want to know is a challenge, they will feel inspired to make an effort.

Or

Enumerate the principles to be followed to choose material for language laboratories.

Ans. Some important principles that can help the teacher to use materials appropriately in the classrooms are as follows:

(1)  To store the materials properly is essential but it is equally important to ensure that it can be quickly distributed to children. If children have to get materials and return them then the system of distribution and collection must involve children. They must feel responsible and help. Such a participation would also ensure that the total time taken for distribution and collecting back is not too much.

(2)  Material should be easy to reach. Even if only the teacher has to use the material, the preparations must be made in advance. It is upsetting for children to wait while the teacher searches for the appropriate material to begin. The continuity and interest in learning gets broken.

(3)  If we have to use a lot of material then it is better to use them one by one. Only when there is a need to show a relationship between different materials or show the reaction between them that we can use them together.

(4)  Breakage of materials is possible during use, it is necessary that there is an acceptance of damage and writing off and replacement of materials in the system. When children read books handle charts, use chalks or colours these materials will get torn, broken or consumed. Any system that does not allow for such processes cannot encourage the use of materials.

(5)  It is important to remember that the materials must be used for learning and not just for display. Materials will not teach on their own; teachers must know which material is useful in which situation. TLM is only a tool for making lessons meaningful. The work of choosing teaching materials has to be done by the teacher keeping the interest and abilities of children in mind.

The various principles or basis of choosing study material are as follows:

(1)  The material should be such that they fulfill the educational objectives. That means they make possible the work that we want to do and the opportunity we want to provide children. For example, if we want children to develop imagination and express their ideas in an organized manner, we need to pick up a picture that can give them this opportunity.

(2)  The material should be usable for diverse purposes. We should procure such materials and prepare teachers so that they can use materials in a flexible way.

(3)  The materials should be easily available and require no extra effort. It is also necessary that they should be available in sufficient quantity and not be expensive. Children should be able to use it. Models of thermocol that get damaged and break on touching are not good materials. We must remember that most of the materials should be for use of children.

(4)  The material that children have to use must be such that it does not require very elaborate precautions. They should not be security hazard.

(5) It is necessary that both teachers and children be participants in the process of choosing and developing materials. It is not appropriate to pre-decide, choose and then send materials to the school and teachers.

(6) Participation of teacher and children in selecting materials is essential. They must also have opportunity to learn to and think about ways of using the materials in classrooms.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English

ASSIGNMENT-II

Q1. Enumerate the various methods which can be used to facilitate the learning of language.

Ans. Some important methods of language-teaching methods are as follows:

(1)  Grammar Translation method:  The grammar–translation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar–translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and the native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the source language, and to further students’ general intellectual development. The biggest limitation of this method is that the children do not acquire proficiency in listening and speaking the language.

(2)  Communicative method:  Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative method, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study. Language learners in environments utilizing CLT techniques learn and practice the target language through interaction with one another and the instructor, study of “authentic texts” (those written in the target language for purposes other than language learning), and use of the language in class combined with use of the language outside of class. Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment and focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language. According to CLT, the goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language.

(3)  Natural Approach:  The Natural Approach is a language learning theory developed by Drs. Stephen Krashen of USC and Tracy Terrell of the University of California, San Diego. This method gives maximum attention to the fact that in language teaching the focus should not be on the teacher or the teaching-learning material but on the learner (student). This fact was also affected by researches done in linguistics. From these researches it also became clear that making mistakes is an essential step in the process of acquiring language. On analyzing these errors it was also found that these errors are in fact indicators of a child’s knowledge and learning process.

The theory is based on the radical notion that we all learn language in the same way. According to this method, children have innate ability to acquire language from birth. A 4-year old internalizes the rules of her language and does not make mistakes in speaking even before entering school. That is why the Natural Approach focuses on giving the child a tension free environment for learning language as well as providing interesting and challenging teaching–learning material of their level.

(4)  Audio Lingual Method:  With the outbreak of World War II armies needed to become orally proficient in the languages of their allies and enemies as quickly as possible. This teaching technique was initially called the Army Method, and was the first to be based on linguistic theory and behavioral psychology.

Or

“Creation of suitable environment is an important pre-requisite for language learning”. Discuss.

Ans. Even though we have the sensory organs and the tendency to speak, no child can learn language until she hears it being spoken and practises speech. Each child learns the language of her group-the way she speaks, the words she uses and the accent of her speech. The child who grows up without contact with people, she cannot speak normally and it will be difficult to teach her later. Also the children who are hard of hearing or deaf, begin to babble at the same time as other children but after some time the amount of babbling decreases, since they do not get a feedback. If not provided a hearing aid, the child will grow up they do not get a feedback. If not provided a hearing aid, the child will grow up without learning to speak. This brings out the importance of environmental factors in language acquisition.

Research studies have shown that when parents are sensitive to the child’s speech and respond to her utterances, the child’s language develops. A rich language environment leads to better speech development. We know that children living in institutions generally show lower levels of language development compared to children in families. A positive emotional relationship with the parents helps the child to feel secure and lays the foundation for language acquisition.

It is clear that the child must be maturationally ready to learn to speak and must get opportunities for hearing and practicing speech. Adults and older children help the infant in acquiring language, especially during the first year of the child’s life, in the following ways:

(i)  Caregivers, whether adults or children, keep their language simple when they are talking to infants, especially those only a few months old. They use short and simple sentences, speak in an exaggerated manner and do not use pronouns like ‘I’ or ‘you’ since these are difficult for the infant to understand. Adults call out the child’s name rather than saying ‘you’ and call themselves ‘mummy’, ‘daddy’ or ‘aunty’ rather than ‘I’. They also produce nonsense sounds, i.e. those which have no meaning, but which the child delights to hear. They respond to the child’s cooing and babbling by talking to her, imitating her and encouraging her. Most of this modification in the way of talking is
instinctive. Caregivers also see what type of speech the infant responds to most and then use that in their interactions.

(ii)  When the infant is around 4-5 months of age, the caregivers begin to show them toys and household objects. While showing these they refer to them by their names and describe them a little. Siblings delight in such activities with the baby and are untiring in their efforts to attract her attention to an object. By 6-7 months the infant also begins to point at objects, picks them up and shows them to people. This increases the interaction between caregivers and the child. By the time the infant is 7-8 months old, the family members also begin to talk about what is going on around the child. They refer to their own actions and the actions of the child. While walking with the infant on the road the father, on seeing a fruit seller, is likely to say: “Banto, look! Bananas! See, there! Banto, eats banana everyday, don’t you? It tastes good, mm……?”

Thus, in a normal environment, the child is continuously surrounded by people who talk to each other and her. The infant picks up new words from the context in which they are spoken and in this manner her language develops.

(iii)  Lullabies and songs are a delightful part of the caregiver-child relationship. There is hardly anyone of us who grew up without hearing them. Some of the songs refer to everyday events like eating, bathing and sleeping. Some of them are about myths and stories. Infants enjoy the rhythm of the lullabies greatly. In addition, they also learn new words. In this way, by 6-7 months the infant begins to recognize the sound and meaning of commonly used words. The infant is able to understand language not because she understands all the words that we use. She may understand one or two words but she relies on the gestures used; the tone of the voice and the context in which they are spoken. When the father says: “No, don’t touch that!”, the child is able to understand because he points to the forbidden object, shakes his head and raises his voice to convey anger or anxiety. This brings us to another aspect of language development that we must keep in mind. At any age, the child is able to comprehend more than she is able to speak.

(iv) When children are around 9-10 months of age, parents and relatives begin to play language games with them. They say a word like “bye-bye” and encourage the child to reproduce it. They also teach her to wave by showing her the gesture. Increasing competency in language helps the baby to interact with more people and form relationships with them and this helps in her social and emotional development. Language helps her to learn about people and objects. Thus, we see that language influences development of cognition and social relationships. This shows how development in one area influences development in other areas as well.

Q2. Critically analyse any two methods which can be used to develop ‘writing skills’ for their strengths and limitations.

Ans. Writing is an important form of communication and a key part of education. It takes time to develop strong writing skills, and it can be a tough task to accomplish. Following are some of the activities to develop writing skills among lower classes:

(1)  Picture composition: The teacher can give a picture to students and ask them to write about it. This writing can include a wide variety of compositions. They may be asked to write a story, to describe the picture, to write a dialogue between the characters, to fill in a missing gap in the picture and write about it, etc. When a series of pictures depicting a story is provided, they can be asked to write the story.

(2)  Continuing the story: The teacher can tell the beginning of a story, and can ask to write what they think happened next.

(3)  Independent writing: The teacher can as to children to write about something that they evidently show great interest in or something that they talk about a lot. This will not only help to develop writing skills, but may point the teacher towards more techniques for facilitating learning.

(4)  Dictation: The teacher can speak aloud some words and ask the children to write them to see if they are able to link the spoken sounds to their written forms.

(5)  Developing stories from given outlines: The teacher can give a rough outline of a story in the form of a series of words and phrases, and then ask to build a story using these words and phrases.

(6)  Last-letter-first: The teacher can make some groups of students and ask to write down words one by one, such that the first letter of the word they write is the last letter of the word that came before. Through this activity, the teacher can identify the problem areas without pointing them out directly to the child.

(7)  Topic of interest: The teacher can let children talk about a topic of their interest and write down what they have said. This will clarify the communicative purpose of writing and will clarify the link between speech and writing.

(8)  Rhyming words: The teacher can ask to students to come up with words which rhyme with the given word, or are similar in sound of the given word.

Higher forms of writing are taught in schools for the development of expression, creativity and communicative ability. Those higher forms are as follows:

(1)  Paragraph writing: Paragraph writing remains one of the most important parts of writing. The paragraph serves as a container for each of the ideas of an essay or other piece of writing. It helps children learn how to think and write focusing on one theme. It is a good exercise for encouraging young children to express themselves coherently and also forms the basis for essay writing. It is advisable to ask children to write about things that they find relevant to their lives.

(2)  Essay writing: An essay is a short piece of writing that discusses, describes and analyses one topic. It can discuss a subject directly or indirectly, seriously or humorously. Essay writing is the most important branch of composition. In the process of essay writing, the student has to gather up ideas associated with the topic, analyze them, reject the irrelevant ideas and choose the relevant ones. This process acts as health tonic to the powers of the mind of the student. His intelligence grows keener, reason sharper and imagination livelier.

(3)  Letter writing: Unlike essays, letters have a very specific communicative purpose. Therefore, they do not require the elaboration of points as required in essays. On the other hand, they do require a certain skill in writing to communicate. The style of writing will vary according to the writer’s relationship with the recipient. The writer needs to understand how the recipient will react to the content of their message.

(4) Story writing: Writing stories is something every child is asked to do in school, and many children write stories in their free time, too. By writing story, children learn to organize their thoughts and use written language to communicate with readers in a variety of ways. Writing stories also helps children better read, and understand, stories written by other people.

Story writing should be introduced when children are beginning to write, so that their imagination aids their writing skills and also for older children. In the case of the latter, the aims of this exercise remain roughly the same. However, promotion of thinking skills and imaginative faculties is emphasised over learning of language. As children grow, they are expected to regard issues from different perspectives, engage in problem solving and appreciate the aesthetic qualities of writing. These skills develop through an affinity with different forms of literature. By the time they get to senior classes, children have been exposed to different forms of literature such as poems, stories, plays etc., and these further help in the development of thinking and story writing skills. In turn, story writing helps generate interest in literature and language.

(5)  Poetry writing: Writing poetry is a transferable skill that will help children write in other ways and styles. Children in smaller classes usually know only those poems which include rhyming words. Younger children enjoy rhyme and rhyming words help in generating interest and in giving children an impression of words, because of which they can read easily. Rhyming words can also generate interest in writing and develop the skill of writing on the basis of sound. Therefore, small poem making activities may be taken up with young children. Children can be asked to make up poems either individually or in groups, with their peers. This can be an enjoyable activity.

Or

“Real assessment of children’s performance should be continuous and comprehensive in its nature”. Justify.

Ans. Continuous and comprehensive assessment (CCA) emphasises on two fold objectives. These are continuity in assessment and assessment of all aspects of learning. Thus the term ‘continuous’ refers to assessment on intermittent basis rather than a onetime event. When the assessment exercises are conducted in short intervals on regular basis, the assessment tends to become continuous. In other words, it can be said that if the time interval between two consecutive assessment events can be lessened or minimised then the assessment will become continuous. In order to make the assessment process continuous, the assessment activities must be spread over the whole academic year. It means regularity of assessment, frequent unit testing, diagnosis of the learning difficulty of the learners, using corrective measures, providing feedback to the learners regarding their progress, etc. will have
to happen maximally.

The second term ‘comprehensive’ means assessment of both scholastic and co-scholastic aspect of student’s development. Since all the abilities of the learners’ development cannot be assessed through written and oral activities, there is a need to employ variety of tools and techniques (both testing and non-testing techniques) for the assessment of all the aspects of learners’ development.

‘Continuous’ is generally considered by teachers as a regular conduct of ‘tests’. Many schools are practicing weekly tests in the name of continuous assessment in all subjects. ‘Comprehensive’ is considered as combining various aspects of child’s behaviour in isolation. Personal-social qualities (empathy, cooperation, self-discipline, taking initiatives etc.) are judged in isolation and are being graded on four/five point scale, which appears impractical.

By continuously observing the learners to see what they know and can do, the teacher can make sure that no learner fails. Everyone is given a chance to succeed and more attention is given to children who were falling behind. Continuous assessment process fosters cooperation between the student and teacher. While the student learns to consult the teacher, classmates and other sources on aspects of her/his project work; the teacher is able to offer remedial help for further improvement in learning.

Comprehensive component means getting a sense of ‘holistic’ development of child’s progress. Progress cannot be made in a segregated manner, that is, cognitive aspects, personal-social qualities, etc. After completion of a chapter/theme, teacher would like to know whether children have learnt (assessment of learning) as s/he expected based on lesson’s objectives/learning points. For that, s/he broadly identifies the objectives of the lesson and spells out learning indicators. The teacher designs activities based on expected learning indicators. These activities need to be of varied nature. Through these questions/activities she would assess the learners and that data would be one kind of summative data of a lesson/theme. Such assessment data must be recorded by the teacher. Likewise
in one quarter, she/he would cover 7-8 lessons/topics and in this manner she/he would have substantial data covering varied aspects of child’s behaviour. It would provide data on how the child was working in groups, doing paper-pencil test, drawing pictures, reading picture, expressing orally, composing a poem/song, etc. These data would give ‘comprehensive’ picture of child’s learning and development.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English

ASSIGNMENT-III

Q1. With suitable example discuss the role of drama, theatre and play in developing students’
core skills in language.

Ans. The use of drama/play/theater has been used over the course of history from the time of Aristotle, who believed that theater provided people a way to release emotions, right to the beginning of the progressive movement in education, where emphasis was placed upon “doing” rather than memorizing. Integrating drama helps children in various ways. Using plays with children can:

• Improve their reading and speaking skills

• Encourage creativity

• Help them experiment with language – tone of voice, body language and their own lines if they are involved in            writing the play.

• Bring them out of themselves – some students like performing or find the script gives them confidence.

• Involve the whole class – non-speaking parts can be given to learners who do not wish to speak or are less                     confident.

In order to use drama as a linguistic activity, two features need to be included – freedom and enjoyment. No special preparation is needed by the teacher or children for conducting drama in the classroom. The teacher only needs to encourage the children to share their experiences naturally. At the primary level: any incident, story or cartoon that children see in their environment can be taken up for acting. For example, any animal, its movement, its complexion, etc. At upper primary level, the teacher should motivate children so that they form small groups wherein they themselves decide the topic, write the dialogues and act it out. At the same time, children should be encouraged to act out traditional games and folk tales as this will not only enhance their creativity but also connect them to their cultural environments.

We can enact or write the script for any play or drama. What grade would each learner get on the script written by her depends upon whether what has to be expressed is emerging in the dialogues written by him/her. We need to check if learner is able to explain his/her ideas? Is (s)he able to use words other than the words already used in the original text of drama. Are the dialogues simple, crisp and interesting? These can be the main points for assessment for drama.

Example 1

Characters:

(1) Rama, the singer

(2) Madhu, Rama’s wife

(3) Neighbors.

Rama: (sits with his harmonium and practices singing).

Do, Re, Me, Fa, So, La, Te, Do

Ist Neighbor: (to Rama’s wife) Madhu, ask your husband to stop singing. It gives me a headache.

2nd Neighbor: He thinks himself to be a good singer but he’s awful.

3rd Neighbor: He hardly sings. He croaks like a frog.

4th Neighbor: He’s indeed disgusting.

(Neighbors go out)

Rama: (Continues singing) Doe, a deer, A female deer

Ray – A Drop of golden sun

Me – A Name I call myself….

1st Neighbor: All our requests have fallen on deaf ears.

2nd Neighbor: We’ll have to teach him a lesson.

3rd Neighbor: He’s as stubborn as a mule.

4th Neighbor: (Throws a shoe at him)

Rama: No one in this village admires my talent.

Madhu: (Comes from the kitchen) Don’t worry. You keep on singing.

That person will throw the second shoe also and we will have a pair of shoes.

Following questions may be asked to children:

(1)  What other title would you like to give to this play?

(2)  Which character do you admire most in this play? Why?

(3)  (a) What is the name of Rama’s wife?

(b) Does Madhu enjoy Rama’s singing?

(4)  The 4th Neighbor throws a shoe at Rama. Suppose it falls on his face.

What would happen next? Complete the play in the same form (dialogue from) as given above.

(5)  Write a conversation between you and your friend about playing some game together.

(6)  Write a paragraph on something or someone that disturbs you in your day-to-day life. Describe how you would    tackle the problem peacefully.

(7)  Enact the play in groups.

Example 2nd: CLEVER BHOLA

Characters: Bhola, the villager

Bhola’s wife – Diya

Bhola’s child

Dabbu, the robber

Narrator: One day, Bhola was going to a nearby village. He had to cross a dense jungle. Suddenly a voice stopped      him.

Dabbu: Stop. Stop I said. If you move I’ll shoot you.

Divya: We are poor people. We have nothing with us.

Dabbu: Nonsense! Everyone says so. Give me whatever you have or I will kill you all.

Bhola: No. No. Leave us all. I’ll give you my wallet.

Dabbu: Ha!Ha!Ha! See how I befooled you. There are no bullets in this gun…. ha ha ha ha!

Bhola: Ha! Ha! Ha. ha ha!

Dabbu: Why the hell are you laughing?

Bhola: I also befooled you. There is no money in that wallet.

Dabbu: What!

Bhola: You thought yourself to be very smart. Ha! Ha! Ha!

These questions may be asked to children:

(1)  What other title would you like to give to this play?

(2)  If you were Bhola what would you have done in the same situation?

(3)  (a) What was Dabbu carrying with him? Why?

(b) Why did Divya say that they are poor people?

(4)  Suppose Dabbu takes out some bullets after Bhola befools him. Complete the play in the same form (dialogue form) as given above.

(5)  Write the play in story form.

(6)  Enact the play in groups.

Or

Develop a comprehensive plan of activities for language learning using ‘word cards’ and ‘picture cards’.

Ans. One purpose of the cards in the context of language teaching is to help children learn to decode. We can give them picture cards to match with word cards. We can also ask them to take a word card and find a word card which is similar to this one. They can put together word cards and make a story. Similarly, pictures and picture cards can be used for conversations, discussions, extending imagination, opportunities for creating descriptions and thinking of stories. These exercises can be initially oral and then can also be written. The cards can be used for any class through activities at different levels with different objectives. For example, think about the use of word cards for class-1 and then for class – 3.

It is clear that one material can be used for many purposes and their use is informed by the objectives and understanding of learning and teaching. If we consider all this then we can see that TLM is only useful when the person using it understands what the children have to learn, the steps for it and activities that can be used for it. Obviously, children have to be able to engage with these activities. Once this happens then it is not difficult to find materials for it around us.

Preparation of Picture Cards: Find or draw a set of 10-20 picture of people, places, animals and objects. Make copies of the picture set on card stock so we have one set for each student in class. In large letters, print the name of each picture on a separate card.

Step 1: Distribute picture card sets to students.

Step 2: Hold up each name card one at a time. Read the name aloud. Hold up the matching picture card. Cue students to repeat the name and hold up their matching picture cards. Repeat this activity two or three times, if appropriate, for practice.

Step 3: Randomly select a name card from the set. Hold it up and say the name aloud. Cue students
to say the name and hold up the matching picture card.

Step 4: Repeat the activity without showing the name card. Say the name of each picture and cue students to repeat the name and hold up the appropriate picture card.

Step 5: This time around hold up a word card but do not say the word aloud. Students say the word and hold up the matching picture card.

Step 6: For the final go-round do not display the word cards. Simply pronounce a word and ask students to hold up the correct picture card.

“Picture and Word” cards can be used at home, in therapy, and throughout a classroom in multiple activities and learning centers. They are beautiful large picture cards that we can customize to meet children needs. Following are few ideas:

(1) Word Wall: These large cards are great for display on a word wall. Word walls may focus on vocabulary and/or sight words.

(2) Class Stories: Display preselected picture and word cards for students to incorporate in a class story. For example place girl, boy, some animals, and food. As the class write a story together on large chart paper, children may be called to offer “what happens next” in the story. The cards may offer visual support for ideas the story such as “There was a girl who met a turtle. The turtle asked the girl, ‘do you have any apples?’….”

(3) Story Characters: Offer the picture and word cards prior to a story in teaching about characters. “Today we are going to read a story about a girl and three bears”. Or, after a story is read aloud, display picture cards which include the story characters. Ask the students to identify who the main characters in the story are.

(4) Labeling the classroom: Use Picture and Word cards to label items around the classroom. We can use our own photos of classroom materials by uploading pictures on “Our Lesson Pix” page if needed. Labeling creates a print-rich environment that links objects with pictures and with words, and giving meaning to print.

(5) Scavenger Hunt: Create groups of pictures that correspond with a unit of study or targeted phonemes. Hide the pictures around a designated area and have the students hunt for the picture cards. When they find the picture, they can share what they found with the group.

(6) Language Master: If we have a Language Master machine, we may print and attach the picture and word cards to blank Language Master cards.

A Language Master Machine is a recorder /player that has cards which slide through the machine. These cards have a strip that has a prerecorded and/or allows the teacher /therapist to record their voice. When the card is put through the machine, the audio is played. Many Special Education teachers and Speech Pathologist use a Language Master to reinforce learning concepts.

(7) Vocabulary Development: Create Picture and Word Cards to teach a vocabulary word(s) of the week. There are Level 1 words which are more concrete and Level 2 words which are more abstract or have multiple meanings. Some early childhood classrooms select one or two words for a week to practice, find, and use. To differentiate instruction, the teacher may select one level 1 and one level 2 word per week to focus on. For example, when talking about feelings at the beginning of the year, a level 1 word may be “mad” and a level 2 word may be “bursting” (burst a balloon, bursting through a door, bursting with anger, bursting with excitement).

(8) Word Hunt: Give each student a Picture and Word Card. Have them hunt through specific books for the matching word.

(9) What’s Missing?: Place 4-5 Picture and Word cards out for the students to see. Collect them and pull one card out. (Make sure the children don’t see it!) Place the remaining cards out on display and have students guess which Picture and Word card is missing.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English

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NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-501. I hope this can help you through your assignment.

Course-501

Elementary Education in India: A Socio- Cultural Perspective

Max. Marks 30

Assignment-I

Note: Answer the following questions in about 500 words.

Q1. What type of changes you want in yourself as a teacher to cater the need of the changing society and learner? Explain with at least two examples.

Ans.  As the world is becoming more advanced and new things are coming up so students should be kept updated about the new innovations and about the changing trends in the world. As a teacher the learning process should not stop and teachers like students should also keep learning new things so that they can teach their students something new every day. This tendency of learning new things will help a lot in development of a teachers.

Studies show that teachers, who have a healthy and friendly relationship with their students, are more successful in their academic field. So, the most important thing that I will definitely adopt is friendly and caring attitude with my students. It helps to know students especially when the students come from different cultural and socio-economic background.

The other most important thing is that always ask students for their feedback. It gives them the impression that you consider their opinions and experiences and value them. It also creates a culture where students feel free to ask questions and share their ideas which also helps them to grow personally, academically and socially.

A teacher holds a very respectful position in society. It’s a proud feeling to be respected by students. A good teacher is respected everywhere in the society. Unlike all other jobs even teaching methods have changed now. Even the attitude of children has changed since the past decade. Thus, as a teacher I would like to bring a few changes in myself. These changes are as under:

  • I would like to develop in me the unique ability of reading my students’ mind so that I can preempt something untoward; and provide them learning environment, absorbing activities, and counsel them not only to overcome their academic challenges, but also the general challenges of life.
  • I would like to upgrade my subject knowledge regularly and blend that knowledge with technology to make it learning effective, interesting, and result-oriented.
  • Now days technology can be used to teach students. These days we can teach through projector to explain better. We can connect with parents online and inform about homework and other updates. So, I would also like to teach my students with these technologies.
  • As a teacher, it’s very important to have a command over students. These days children are becoming more stubborn. We need to become more dominating. Therefore, I’ll become little more dominant at my classroom.

Above all as a teacher I would like to teach students self-confidence which is the most needed thing in today’s world and which is often ignored at school and also I want to help children know how to talk to people and in what way they communicate to people so that they leave a lasting impact on the other person. They should be given motivation classes so that they study properly and think of studying as something they need and should take interest in studying rather than just studying it for the sake of a duty.

Or

How do you feel that role of ancient guru has changed in present society?

Which qualities of ancient Guru you would like to adopt as a teacher? Why?

Ans. In Bhartiya Darshan ‘Guru’ has significant place. It consists of two words, Gu-ru. The word ‘Gu’ indicated darkness and ‘ru’ means controller. It means to avoid darkness or ignorance. In Vedas the term achariya is used for guru. Guru is considered greatest treasure of knowledge.

Guru was playing many roles in those days for the students like parent, teacher, scholar, missionary, a friend-philosopher and a guide. He was to pay personal attention to the needs of the students. It was a responsibility of Guru to see that the student develops, makes progress to the satisfaction of Guru as well as to his own satisfaction. That time the relationship between teachers used to be very intimate and the taught-like father and son.

Oral interaction method was prevalent those days. Lectures, discourses, a debates and discussions, recitation and recapitulation were part of routine daily student life. Assessment was continuous comprehensive assessment internally conducted by Guru. There were no terminal examinations, no degree-certificates, but announcing by the Guru in the convocation that the student has graduated after completion of the stipulated studies. Guru would present the qualified student to a gathering of learned people who may ask questions, or the student would be asked to contest in debate and prove himself. Then for his mastery over the subject, the student would be known and accepted as a scholarly person.

Learners’ autonomy was respected. They were free to choose the Guru and the subject of study. At the same time, to accept the student (Shishya) or not, it was a prerogative of the Guru, the teacher.

In the new world, there are numerous roles the teacher is expected to perform. The typical roles may include:

▪ Developer and nurturer of e-culture,

▪ Networker and change agent,

▪ Learning practitioner and facilitator.

▪ Learning resource developer

▪ Techno-pedagogue

▪ Evaluator

▪ Action researcher

▪ Behaviour scientist

▪ Curriculum designer and transact or

▪ Instructional system designer

The gurus were unselfish and lived for the good of the world. But this is difficult to follow these days. Gurus were respected very well. They taught students in the middle of nature. There were practicals too. Gurus were appreciated by the kings and were sponsored by them. Gurus had powers to command their students and disciples. They could judge the situations well and were able to give good advice to kings or people. Therefore, we need some of these qualities in today’s teachers.

Q2. Survey some schools in your locality and enlist the major issues of the elementary education. Suggest the ways to resolve these issues.

Ans. The survey of some schools shows that the major issues of elementary education are :-

  • The classrooms do not have sufficient furniture. Three or four students have to share the same bench. Some of them even sit on the floor.
  • There is no proper blackboard. Teaching small kids of class 1st to 3rd get really complicated because they need a lots of board work.
  • Teachers are not focusing on all around development of students.
  • Teachers are not trained suitably.
  • The students are from poorer sections of society so the fees and indirect school related costs like uniform, books and study materials, transport are very high for them.
  • A good pay leads to a better education but the teachers in schools are not getting proper pay due to which they are not able to teach students properly.

Some steps which can be taken to resolve these issues are:-

  • The government should allocate more money for education. So that they can equip the classroom with properly resources. The proper inquiry should also be placed that can ensure that the money of government are been used in right place.
  • Teacher training programs should be given importance.
  • Teachers should be given incentives and better salaries so that they can teach properly with their full effort.
  •  Fees and other school related costs should be reduced. If possible free education should be imparted.
  • Teachers should teach something out of the book like general knowledge, interesting facts and all those things that can help a student to grow.

 Or

Visit some schools in your locality and prepare a report in the context of adaptation of salient features of NCF 2005.

Ans. I visited XYZ school in my locality. It is a state board syllabus school. The most attractive thing I noticed about the school was they have inclusive learning. They have inculcated in their curriculum learner centric mode.

They encourage the children to participate in various club activities like chess, carom, gardening, classical dance, silambam and Carnatic music. They have NSS in their school and they do lots of social service through the same.

They have activities such as worksheet, which makes the children to brainstorm and write. They have worksheets for all the subjects. They have a big playground which has a basketball court and volleyball court. They also have a separate place for yoga and meditation. All these have a separate time-table.

Their first language is the regional language, that is, Tamil. Their medium of instruction is English and Hindi is taught as third language. Their classroom is well-equipped with smart board. This enables the teacher to make her teaching interesting and the teacher is able to reach out to all the three types of learners, “Auditory, Visual and Kinesthetic learner”. They have well ventilated rooms and the teacher-student ratio is for every thirty children-one teacher.

The children are made to cherish their learning through practical training. Various competitions are conducted for the same purpose. Extended learning happens when they are taken on a field trip. Taking the children on a field trip is done every term based on the lesson which requires such learning.

In order to prepare the children for the competitive exams, they have Math Lab, STEM lab and in order to give a holistic development for a child they have the games on the computers which enhances a child’s concentration, observing skills and quick thinking skills. As far as exams are concerned, till 5th standard, the child gets only grades. Exams are conducted in a leisurely manner, sometime it is conducted on one on one basis. From VI upwards it is marks. This is to motivate the children to prepare for the Board Exam.

Children are happy to come to school because they carry fewer books as most of the books are collected and kept in the class. Each child has a cubicle to keep his/her books. The teachers are friendly and firm. If a child does not complete the homework consecutively for three days, parents are intimated and the root cause is found.

If a child is found copying, the child is sent home to introspect for two days and then return. This way the child gets to understand the mistake done by her/him.

I was very happy to study this school because they have almost adhered to all the rules laid in NCF 2005. ‘J.P Naik has described an exclusive triangle for Indian Education and that is, equality, quality and quantity’. This school has their school motto as “empowering knowledge by invoking the creativity in the young minds”.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English

Assignment – II

Q1. Enlist the various reasons for exclusion. What strategies you will adopt to setup an inclusive school and classroom?

Ans. The minority is constantly under the threat of assimilation. When under the compulsions of economy the family structure is loosened, the social organisation faces disintegration, the handicrafts and other finer cultural traits of distinctiveness face extinction, and language remains a major identity marker if not the only one and acts as the only window to the cultural past of a people. The demand for the recognition of minority languages and their use in education, administration and mass communication draws strength from this situation.

Education is generally directed towards the needs of the students coming from homes having a majority status in the society. As a result, students belonging to minority community often feel excluded in school environment. There are following reasons for their exclusion:

  • The preconceived notions of the students might be different from those of the majority due to difference in cultural background.
  • Students might find the content irrelevant as they are.
  • The language used in the textbooks and in classroom transactions could be different from the mother tongue of the students.
  • The experiences referred in the textbooks and in a classroom, discourse might be unfamiliar to the students.

To facilitate the development of inclusive society in which every member has an opportunity to achieve his/her potential to fullest extent is the real purpose of building an inclusive school. In order to achieve this objective, it is necessary that diversity among learner population is given due importance and provision is made to achieve everyone’s rights. Access for all is the central concept in inclusive schools. It involves the psychological and physical environment of the school including curriculum transactions. All these aspects of the school should be conductive to learners with different abilities and social background. In brief, it is essential that the school should have inclusive learning environment that fosters the personal, academic and professional development of all the students.

The attitude of a teacher is the essential aspect of an inclusive classroom. A teacher who believes that the intelligence is inherited and nothing much can be done to improve it will hardly encourage the development of all the students. On the other hand, a teacher who is optimistic about the potential of individual and who maintains that the intelligence can manifest in different forms would provide an inclusive environment in the classroom to foster individual talent. Teacher must realize that diversity in learner is inevitable and everyone would have different requirements. Taking these diversities into account a teacher has to create both psychological and physical environment in the classroom. Every child has a chance to progress, in such a conducive environment.

Every year, SSA framework provides `1200 every disabled child. While planning for the utilization of this money, it should be borne in mind that the amount available is not only for the use of a particular child with a special need, but also has to be utilized for planning of Inclusive Education activities at the school/habitat/village levels. For implementing the programmer of Inclusive Education, the SSA State Mission Societies are allocated funds depending on the total number of disabled children identified in the district. While some disabled children may only need the help of a special education teacher, others may require simple equipment like assertive devices like hearing aid, etc. However, this does not mean that this amount has to be spent annually; it can be accumulated for a year or two and utilized on a sizable facility.

This amount could be used in other activities like assessment camps, development of training material, community awareness campaigns, 45-day Rehabilitation Council of India recognized teacher training, requesting specific services from NGOs, workshops and meetings. An attempt should be made to provide aids and appliances to identified CWSN through convergence. If this is not possible, then SSA funds could be used for this purpose. Only in exceptional circumstances, referral to residential special schools should be made. As far as possible CWSNs should be allowed stay with their family. Interventions for education of children with disabilities have to be planned by each district keeping in view available resources. In normal schools, overriding emphasis should be on inclusive education and in special schools, not isolating them.

Or

Suggest ways to access and retention of child in school.

Ans. Following are the ways to access and retention of child in school:

  1. Improvement in the quality and relevance of schooling – This can help to increase the enrolment of children in the schools. When people perceive that schools provide quality education and offer an opportunity to learn relevant skills they will send their children to schools.
  2. Make the school environment child friendly – Another way to increase access and retention is to make the teaching and learning environment safe and secure. It should be conducive to the health of the students. There should be no violence or aggression. Teaching and learning should be interesting. This will also develop interest in children’s towards study.
  3. Increase the amount of expenditure on education – The government can give grants to schools and scholarships to the students. It can spend money on the teacher training programs. Government should organise some scholarship competitions for students. This will give an opportunity to rise to skills of the students. If there will be scholarship then the students will participate with their full effort.
  4. Reduction of school-related costs – Direct costs of schooling like fees, uniforms, learning materials and transportation and indirect costs act as a barrier to access and retention of children in schools. If school related costs are reduced more children can afford to go to school.
  5. The government can take steps to encourage education – It can provide different incentives for setting up schools. It can encourage the people to send their children to school by giving various concessions and facilities to them.
  6. Parental and community involvement in schools – Parents and teachers should work together to build the personality of the child. There should be parent-teacher meetings. Parents and other members of the community should be invited for the sports and other cultural functions. This will encourage the students to continue their education.
  7. Teachers should teach students in an interesting manner, this will increase interest in studying and the classes will not be boring.
  8. Alternative provision or complementary education – Non-formal education can be provided by the community organized schools or NGOs. Such initiatives provide high levels of access and produce significant learning outcomes. This does not require excessive expenditure.

Location of schools closer to the residences of children – If the schools are located nearby it will be easier for parents to send their children to school. It will help to minimize the time and expenses involved in attending schools. So more children will join schools and continue their studies.

Q2. You as a teacher, critically analyse the implementation issues of Right to Education Act, 2009, face by your school. Suggest ways for better implementation of the Act?

Ans. When it comes to implementation of RTE Act, the situation is worse in the state of Uttar Pradesh. I work in a government school of UP. There are are lot of statistics which indicate that the Uttar Pradesh is way behind in improving its education system and in implementing the RTE Act in improving its education system and in implementing the RTE Act in its letter and spirit. According to a Report titled “Education for All-Towards Quality with Equity” (2014) prepared by National University for Educational Planning and Administration (NEUPA), there were 8.15 million children out of school in 2009. Uttar Pradesh accounted 3 4% of these 8.15 million out of school children, i.e. 2.78 million children. Currently, the figure of “out of school” children in the entire country is counted up to 3.45 crore.

By virtue of S. 12 (1) (c), the RTE Act imposes ‘a legal obligation on the private unaided schools to enroll children from the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and disadvantaged groups at entry level, with 25% seats to be reserved for them, in order to make these schools more inclusive’. Though the enrollment rate in EWS category under S. 12 (1) (c) of the Act increased from 21.5% fill rate in 2012-13 to 29% in 2013-14, in Uttar Pradesh, however, this rate was recorded the lowest at 3.62%, by “State of the Nation” (2015) Report. The Report was brought out collectively by Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad, Central Square Foundation, Accountability Initiative and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. The same Report estimates that the 25% reservation clause in UP would cover 633262 seats, out of which a total of only 5033 seats were filled in 2014-15 with a seat fill rate of 0.79%. In 2013-14, the seat fill rate was 1.17%. The attitude of elite private schools, in this regard, can be seen from the attitude of City Montessori School (CMS) in the case, City Montessori School v. State of U.P. (2015), wherein the school was refusing to admit 31 EWS students in one of its branches.

Additionally, RTE Act creates several obligations on the government regarding the quantity and quality of teachers, and the operation of schools. The Schedule to the RTE Act includes numerous provisions which specify the number of teachers (at least two for class I to V, and at least one per class for class VI to VIII) and the Pupil-Teacher Ratio (no more than 30:1 in class I to V, for schools with 120 students or fewer, and no more than 40:1 for larger schools; and no more than 35:1 in class VI to VIII.

The target was supposed to be met by March 31, 2013. On U.P.’s schools, ASER 2016 states that only 30.8% comply with the RTE mandated pupil-teacher ratio.

                                                                                                         Or

Visit some schools in your locality and enlist the various program related to SSA. How these programs can help in harmonization of Right to Education Act, 2009 and SSA?

Ans. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is a programme for Universalisation of Elementary Education covering the entire country, started in 2001. The programme aims to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 years age group by 2010. It is an initiative to universalize and improve quality of education in a mission made through decentralized and context specific planning and a process based, time bound implementation strategy. The programmer lays emphasis for bridging all gender and social category gaps at elementary education level. SSA was initiated in 2001 following recommendations from the state education ministers’ conference in 1998. Although the 86th Amendment to the Constitution enacted in 2002 made elementary education a fundamental right, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act that operationalize the provision of free and compulsory education was not passed by the Parliament until August 2009.

By following points, SSA programs can help in harmonization of Right to Education Act, 2009:

  1. The SSA is governed at the Center by a General Body chaired by the Prime Minister, an Executive Committee and a Project Approval Board. In the states, it is implemented through separately registered societies with staff deputed from the state government or appointed on contract. A Governing Body and an Executive Committee functions in every state too. A State Project Director oversees the SSA at the state level, in addition to the already existing Director/Commissioner of Education.
  2. The RTE Act envisages a National Advisory Council at the Center and State Advisory Councils, to advice on the implementation of the Act. As for monitoring, the Act designates the NCPCR and the SCPCRs (or REPA) to ensure that the rights of children are not violated.
  3. SSA has a Joint Review Mission (JRM) that reviews the progress of the project every six months. The developmental partners of SSA, namely the World Bank, the DFID and the European Commission, are a part of this JRM exercise.
  4. RTE requires the entire education department to be geared in a unified manner to take up the task on a long term basis. In the long run this would require the unification of the existing SSA structures with the regular education department. The actual convergence of SSA structures with the regular education department and the SCERT should commence immediately; dichotomous and overlapping structures, wherever they exist and are adversely affecting the programme, should be eliminated. However, complete integration of SSA and Elementary Education Department structures may take some time. It is, therefore, prudent to implement a transitional strategy whereby a modified SSA remains the modality to be replaced by a new scheme compatible with the provisions of the Act from the middle of the Twelfth Plan period. Till then, SSA would be the vehicle for implementation of the RTE Act.
  5. Thus, the NAC/SACs under the RTE Act will coexist with the General Body and Executive Committee structure of the SSA till the NAC/SACs take over the full advisory role by end of the Eleventh Plan. Similarly, as the NCPCR/SCPCR (REPA) gradually takes over the monitoring role, and it becomes clear what the future role of the development partners shall be beyond the Eleventh Plan period, the JRM would continue. In the meantime, the precise nature of review and monitoring beyond the Eleventh Plan could be worked out in a manner that fulfils the provisions of the Act.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-501 Full Answer In English

 Assignment – III

Q1. Who are the ones who have dropped-out? Visit some schools in your locality and prepare a list on the drop-out children at the elementary level in your District. Enlist the reasons for the same? What can you do, as a teacher, to ensure that students retention in school?

Ans. A dropout is a student who was enrolled at some time during the previous school year but who was not enrolled (and who does not meet reporting exclusions) on day 20 of the current school year. A single individual may be counted as a dropout more than once if s/he drops out of school in multiple years.

Out of approximately 200 million children in the age-group 6-14 years, only 120 million are in schools. The overall dropout rate was 40 per cent at the primary level and 55 per cent at the upper primary level in 1999-2000 (India Vision, 2020).

In a resettlement colony in northwest Delhi, I had a conversation with 54-year-old Abha Devi about why her family stopped sending her 15-year-old granddaughter Soni to school. Abha’s family was forcefully evicted from a central Delhi jhuggi-jhopri (JJ) cluster in Delhi in 2006, along with other families, and resettled in a JJ resettlement colony close to the Haryana border. Abha’s 13-year-old grandson continues his schooling in the JJ resettlement colony where they currently live, while Soni dropped out of school at the age of 12. Abha and her family, including Soni, pointed out that it is unsafe for girls to go out in this JJ colony. Women’s safety – or the lack thereof – is a recurrent narrative across Delhi’s resettlement colonies.

According to the Social and Rural Research Institute-India Market Research Bureau 2014 survey data, the percentage share of girls out of school is higher than that of boys in the age bracket of 6-13 years in Delhi as well as in urban India. However, both rates of out-of-school children and their gender disparity are much higher in NCT Delhi compared to urban India on average in the same age bracket. Gender disparity in out-of school children is further sharpened in urban resettlement colonies in Delhi.

Like many large cities in India, the government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD) regularly evicts jhuggi settlements from central parts of the city. The GNCTD provides resettlement plots to some of the evicted bastes (slums and JJ clusters) dwellers in the margins of the city within so called ‘planned’ resettlement colonies. Fear and lack of oversight in the nascent resettlement colonies constrain women’s mobility. Young girls and boys experience urban displacement differently, especially in relation to their experiences with schooling after eviction and resettlement. While most boys continue schooling, girls mostly drop out after a certain age.

Existing research reveals three main reasons for high dropout rates for girls in India: higher expectations of domesticity from girls (early marriage, sharing domestic responsibilities with parents and so on); safety concerns (boys teasing and taunting girls travelling to and from school); and infrastructural barriers (such as lack of toilets for girls in schools). Lack of women’s safety emerges as a key reason for the high female dropout rate in Delhi’s resettlement colonies.

The lack of women’s safety as a constraint for female education and mobility has become a trope. This is not to suggest that lack of women’s safety is a myth in these resettlement colonies. However, my research, based on interviews with young girls and women, highlighted that there are several other factors at play that impact this idea of ‘safety’.

Saying that it is only women’s safety concerns that causes girls to drop out of school camouflages a deep-rooted patriarchal psyche that could be the actual driver. ‘Ghar (home)’ or ‘inside’ is seen as the ideal place for girls. While gender-based violence ‘inside’ the home is acceptable, lack of women’s safety ‘outside’ the home is a threat.

Although better implementation of existing programmers for women’s empowerment is a challenge, it is not sufficient to ensure a gender-sensitive environment. Flagship programmes do not take into account ground-level realities. Recognizing and attacking context-specific patriarchal norms and practices should be the first step. Community mobilization is the real challenge for the success of programme goals.

Grassroots-level organisations such as Jagori initiated a more nuanced approach to combat gender-based violence in selected resettlement colonies in Delhi. Their plan includes training a cadre of youth leaders – both boys and girls –to “explore and understand issues of ending violence, building resistance and confidence”. Research-based action and understanding deep-rooted and context-specific problems in each resettlement colony and planning accordingly is crucial for successful outcomes. Action-based research, acknowledging the residents of the resettlement colonies as participants in the research and planning process as well as bridging gaps among residents, community leaders, volunteers, researchers and planners is equally important. Research-based action going hand in hand with action-based research is the need of the hour.

Shashi Kant Singh, Principal of a government school in Dwarka told First post that many of the students do not take admission even if their names are sent by the MCD schools.

“If a school sends names of 270 students normally 230 of them finally show up for admission,” he said. He also said that it was difficult to assess why some students never show up for admission, but he surmised that some among them take admission in the schools in the neighboring states.

Ashok Agarwal attributes the sudden rise in dropout rates to the neglect showed by the Delhi government towards the MCD schools. “The schemes introduced by the education department to decrease dropout rates are meant for the students studying in the schools run by the Delhi government,” he said.

He also added that no scheme has been introduced to do the same in MCD schools. This is the prime reason why dropout rates have jumped to an alarming level in these schools. He said that there is no scheme initiated by the education department even to bring these students back to school.

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Visit some schools in your locality and prepare a report on the issue of protecting child rights.

Ans. The brutal murder of a 7-year-old in a Gurgaon school and the rape of a 5-year-old in a Delhi school have once again reminded us of how unsafe schools can be for its children. It brings back memories of the twin drowning cases last year – one in a Delhi school (which is part of the same chain in which the 7-year-old was murdered) and the other in a government-run public school. These tragedies in school campuses aren’t just limited to schools in India but also occur in some of the developed countries as well. The central government on its part has passed laws such as Protection of Children against Sexual Offences (POCSO Act) and many state and city governments have issued school safety guidelines. Yet, the efficacy of such laws is very poor given the state’s poor capacity for implementation of such laws and guidelines. Having robust state mandated laws and protocols are a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition to protect our children in school. For example, while every state government mandates police verification for school teaching staff, very few police departments have a robust and a timely police verification system. While schools may find ways to get the police complete the verification of its staff, it doesn’t entirely eliminate the possibility of a criminal sneaking into the school’s payrolls. Another example is the recommended use of CCTVs by various governments. While CCTVs are important, they are often used retrospectively to analyse an offence rather than proactively to prevent one.

But there are a few things parents can and should do to ensure that the school is safe for their children – from sexual offences, bullying, corporal punishment, physical safety, natural calamities and medical emergencies. I’m sharing a few best practices some safe schools follow around my locality:

  1. Safe schools often have a matured and an independent safety committee with representations from parents, teachers and expert consultants. This committee has a mandate to work with the school on developing metrics for safety audits, process and policy design and creating buy-in from parent community on safety issues. But the primary responsibility of this committee is to help the school balance the safety concerns against curriculum requirements. Theoretically, the safest school is the one that locks its kids and teachers in a single room with no movement outside in corridors or playground! But that was not what schools are built for. Many good schools have totally abandoned any experiential and outdoor learning in favour traditional classrooms teaching because they are not confident of their safety procedures. A good parent safety committee must provide this support and comfort to schools by encouraging parents to volunteer as tour marshals.
  2. Much of a school’s safety is incidental upon its environmental design and its architecture. A school should have no dead zones – areas nobody has a visibility over. For example, there should be no doors that can be locked (except for individual bathroom units), no doors without transparent/glass panels, no rooms within rooms in the entire campus. Much of the crimes in schools can be prevented over the principle of ‘see and be seen’. Corridors and classrooms that encourage a natural surveillance provide the best deterrence. CCTV cameras should cover all the common areas especially remote or less populated areas. Unfortunately, most CCTVs are rendered useless due to their poor positioning and poor quality of images. Also, CCTVs are effective only when there are pairs of eyes scanning the live video feed. As parents, talk about its environmental design to your school.
  3. A proven method to build safe schools around the world is to have a culture of teachers ‘walking around’ during breaks, transition times, assembly time and dispersal at the end of the school. Research across schools in many geographies have time and again proven that schools that have dedicated teacher patrol routines during break and transition time drastically reduce bullying, physical accidents etc. Teacher patrols also build a large culture of care in the school community. Every student knows that someone is always watching out for us. Unfortunately, Indian schools unlike their counterparts in the west, do not focus on this protocol. Many of the state’s safety guidelines are silent on teacher patrols. As a parent, work with your school to ensure that there are caring adults walking around the campus, especially in areas where offences could happen – bathrooms, gym room, labs, deserted areas behind the school building etc.
  4. Safety doesn’t happen by accident. It happens through disciplined and consistent practice. Safe schools are diligent about their scheduled and unscheduled safety drills and training. Everyone in the community takes these drills seriously. Safe schools are also serious about sharing the lessons of safety drills and tweaking their processes. Parents should check the track record and findings of such drills in their schools.
  5. Often, Indian schools relegate the management of its blue collared staff to third party contractors building very little engagement and ownership among them. As much as a rigorous recruitment process, safe schools ensure continued engagement and training of its blue collared workers. Training not only includes protocols and procedure training, but also training on yoga, meditation and spirituality. As a parent knows, that safety is more about culture than it is about processes. Ask your school — how do they ensure engagement and ownership among its blue collared workers?
  6. Teachers who can teach their subject well need not necessarily be good at handling child safety issues. Does your school constantly invest in training and sensitising of teachers? Are all the teachers able to identify a child in distress? Do they have the maturity to sensitively handle issues and protect the child as per law and child rights guidelines? As a parent, ask your school on the training the school has invested in. Talk to the teachers to get a sense if the school has well articulated emergency procedures that are well understood by all.
  7. As crude it may sound, most safe schools will have a no touch policy. No teacher or staff, irrespective of gender, is allowed to touch any child for any reason whatsoever. While it may sound very conservative, it does, for a school system as a whole, ensure safety of the child (and the teacher too in cases of false/wrong accusations). Parents should have a dialogue with the school on what their policy on student teacher touch is.
  8. Safe schools do a good job of enforcing access controls in different parts of the school. No access zones areas are clearly demarcated— like zero access for bus drivers/conductors to children’s restrooms. Dead zones are adequately barricaded and rights of access are articulated visually. As a parent, see if you are experiencing these controls when you visit the school.
  9. While all Indian schools take student attendance in the morning, most schools do not have a robust mechanism to track students between class periods. No wonder many of the recent accidents or abuses in Indian schools happened in between classes. Some of the good practices include attendance in every class, corridor passes for stepping out of classes etc. Such tracking system not only makes the individual teacher accountable for each child in the class, but it also makes students accountable for their movement during class time.
  10. Lastly, no school, like anything else in life, can guarantee absolute safety. While the school may do everything in letter and spirit to substantially decrease the probability of an accident, it may not be able to totally eliminate the possibility of an accident. Safety is everybody’s business—not just the school’s or the government’s. Parents should not delude themselves by abdicating or outsourcing their child’s safety to the school. As a parent, ensure that your children are empowered to deal with any situation. Invest time in teaching them on how to keep themselves safe. Take efforts to build your own understanding of various issued faced by children of today.

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Also See:- NIOS D.EL.ED. Help Book Course-501 In English Medium

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