Role Media Democracy Essay In Urdu

See also: Censorship in Pakistan and Internet censorship in Pakistan

Media in Pakistan provides information on television, radio, cinema, newspapers, and magazines in Pakistan. Pakistan has a vibrant media landscape; among the most dynamic in South Asia. To a large extent the media enjoys freedom of expression in spite of political pressure and direct bans sometimes administered by political stake holders.[1] Political pressure on media is mostly done indirectly. One tool widely used by the government is to cut off ‘unfriendly’ media from governmental advertising. Using draconian laws the government has also banned or officially silenced popular television channels. The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has been used to silence the broadcast media by either suspending licenses or by simply threatening to do so. In addition, media is also exposed to propaganda from state agencies, pressured by powerful political elements and non-state actors involved in the current conflict.[1]

Media freedom in Pakistan is complicated, journalists are free to report on most things. however any articles critical of the Government or the Military and related security agencies are automatically censored. Anything perceived as blasphemous by the country's Blasphemy laws are also automatically subject to censorship.[2] The blasphemy laws are also used to block website based free media such as YouTube and others.[2]

The security situation for journalists in general has deteriorated in decade. At least 61 journalists have been killed since 2010[3] with at least 14 journalists killed in 2014 alone.[4] A climate of fear impedes coverage of both state security forces and the militant groups.Threats and intimidation against journalists and media workers by state and non-state actors is widespread.[1][5][6]

In its 2014 Press Freedom Index, Reporters without borders ranked Pakistan number 158 out of 180 countries based on freedom of the press.[7] While Freedom House in its latest report listed the media in Pakistan as "Not Free".[2]

Overview[edit]

Since 2002, the Pakistani media has become powerful and independent and the number of private television channels have grown from just three state-run channels in 2000 to 89 in 2012, according to the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority. Most of the private media in Pakistan flourished under the Musharraf regime.

Pakistan has a vibrant media landscape and enjoys independence to a large extent. After having been liberalised in 2002, the television sector experienced a media boom. In the fierce competitive environment that followed commercial interests became paramount and quality journalism gave way to sensationalism. Although the radio sector has not seen similar growth, independent radio channels are numerous and considered very important sources of information - especially in the rural areas.

The Pakistani media landscape reflects a multi-linguistic, multi-ethnic and class-divided society. There is a clear divide between Urdu and English media. The Urdu media, particularly the newspapers, are widely read by the masses - mostly in rural areas. The English media is urban and elite-centric, is more liberal and professional compared to the Urdu media. English print, television and radio channels have far smaller audiences than their Urdu counterparts, but have greater leverage among opinion makers, politicians, the business community and the upper strata of society.

Pakistan has a vibrant media landscape; among the most dynamic and outspoken in South Asia. To a large extent the media enjoys freedom of expression. More than 89 television channels beam soaps, satire, music programmes, films, religious speech, political talk shows, and news of the hour. Although sometimes criticise for being unprofessional and politically biased, the television channels have made a great contribution to the media landscape and to Pakistani society.

Radio channels are numerous and considered a very important source of information - especially in the rural areas. Besides the state channel Radio Pakistan, a number of private radios carry independent journalistic content and news. But most radio content is music and entertainment. There are hundreds of Pakistani newspapers from the large national Urdu newspapers to the small local vernacular papers.

Pakistan's media sector is highly influenced by the ownership structure. There are three dominating media moguls, or large media groups, which to some extent also have political affiliations. Due to their dominance in both print and broadcast industries all three media groups are very influential in politics and society.[1]

History[edit]

The media in Pakistan dates back to pre-partition years of British India, where a number of newspapers were established to promote a communalistic or partition agenda. The newspaper Dawn, founded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and first published in 1941, was dedicated to promoting for an independent Pakistan. The conservative newspaper, Nawa-i-Waqt, established in 1940 was the mouthpiece of the Muslim elites who were among the strongest supporters for an independent Pakistan.

In a sense, Pakistani print media came into existence with a mission to promulgate the idea of Pakistan, which was seen as the best national option for the Muslim minority in British India and as a form of self-defence against suppression from the Hindu majority.[1]

Role in exposing corruption[edit]

Since the introduction of these vibrant TV channels, many major corruption cases and scams have been unveiled by journalists. Notable among them are:

“Malik Riaz’s case proved that the media can hold the judiciary and even itself accountable,” says Javed Chaudhry, columnist and anchorperson working with Express News. “This case, along with the missing persons' case has established impartiality and credibility of the media in its fight against corruption.” Chaudhry feels, like many others in country, that the media in Pakistan has become free and fair during the last decade. “The Pakistani media has covered the journey of 100 years in just 10 years, but their curiosity and thrust for revelation does not end and that is what drives the media.”[16]

TENSIONS: According to a report by the UK Foreign Office, Pakistan’s media environment continued to develop and, in many cases, flourish. Since opening up in 2002, the number and range of media outlets has proliferated, so that Pakistanis now have greater access than ever before to a range of broadcasting through print, television and online media. The increased media penetration into most aspects of Pakistani life has created challenges as well as opportunities, as both the journalistic community and politicians and officials build their understanding of effective freedom of expression and responsible reporting.[17]

However, in 2011, Reporters Without Borders listed Pakistan as one of the ten most deadly places to be a journalist. As the War in North-West Pakistan continues, there have been frequent threats against journalists. The proliferation of the media in Pakistan since 2002 has brought a massive increase in the number of domestic and foreign journalists operating in Pakistan. The UK Foreign Office states that it is vital that the right to freedom of expression continues to be upheld by the Pakistani Government. This was highlighted by an event supporting freedom of expression run by the European Union in Pakistan, which the United Kingdom supported.[18][19]

International co-operation[edit]

Support for creation of new media[edit]

In 2012-14, UPI Next with NearMedia LLC helped Pakistani journalists to create PakPolWiki, an online resource for coverage of the national elections, and Truth Tracker, a fact-checking website. In this project, the team held learning sessions across the country and conducted individual mentoring for journalists to produce stories that meet national and international standards.

NearMedia continued the effort with a project for 2014-15 that, in partnership with Media Foundation 360, launched News Lens Pakistan, an independent online news cooperative which publishes stories in English, Urdu and Pashto for a national audience, and distributes these stories to national and local news outlets. Learning sessions, in which editors work with reporters newsroom-style to improve their skills, are held in districts of all provinces, and international journalists work with the Pakistan team to mentor them individually.

Pakistan - US Journalists Exchange Program[edit]

Since 2011, the East-West Center (EWC), headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii, have been organising the annual Pakistan - United States Journalists Exchange program. It was launched and designed to increase and deepen public understanding of the two countries and their important relationship, one that is crucial to regional stability and the global war on terrorism. While there have been many areas of agreement and cooperation, deep mistrust remains between the two, who rarely get opportunities to engage with each other and thus rely on media for their information and viewpoints. Unresolved issues continue to pose challenges for both countries.

This exchange offers U.S. and Pakistani journalists an opportunity to gain on-the-ground insights and firsthand information about the countries they visit through meetings with policymakers, government and military officials, business and civil society leaders, and a diverse group of other community members. All participants meet at the East-West Center in Hawaii before and after their study tours for dialogues focused on sensitive issues between the two countries; preconceived attitudes among the public and media in the United States and Pakistan; new perspectives gained through their study tours; and how media coverage between the two countries can be improved. Ten Pakistani journalists will travel to the United States and ten U.S. journalists will travel to Pakistan. This East-West Center program is funded by a grant from the U.S. Embassy Islamabad Public Affairs Section.

The program provides journalists with valuable new perspectives and insights on this critically important relationship, a wealth of contacts and resources for future reporting, and friendships with professional colleagues in the other country upon whom to draw throughout their careers.[20]

International Center for Journalists[edit]

In 2011, the International Center for Journalists (ICFJ), a non-profit, professional organisation located in Washington, D.C. launched the U.S. - Pakistan Professional Partnership in Journalism program, a multi-year program which will bring 230 Pakistani media professionals to the United States and send 70 U.S. journalists to Pakistan. Journalists will study each other's cultures as they are immersed in newsrooms in each country.

The program will include events and opportunities to experience U.S. life, showcasing its diversity. Representatives from the U.S. media hosts will go to Pakistan for two-week programs during which they will learn the realities of Pakistani journalism and national life through site visits, interviews and opportunities to interact with journalists, officials and ordinary Pakistanis.

Pakistanis will receive four-week internships at U.S. media organizations.

Participants on both sides will have opportunities to report on their experiences in each country, which will help to educate their audiences and dispel myths and misconceptions that people carry in each country about residents of the other.

ICFJ has also established the Center for Excellence in Journalism (CEJ) in Karachi, Pakistan. The CEJ serves as a hub for the professional development, training and networking of Pakistani journalists and media professionals from all parts of the country.[21]

Through targeted, practical trainings and the exchange component of the program, the CEJ aims to foster long-lasting connections between the participating universities, media outlets, and professional journalists.

A partnership with Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism and the Institute of Business Administration (IBA) aims to provide targeted, practical trainings for Pakistani journalists in print, broadcast, and digital media. Courses will be co-instructed by faculty from the Medill School, accomplished newsroom managers, editors and reporters from the United States, and prominent media professionals from Pakistan.

Regulation[edit]

History[edit]

The first step in introducing media laws in the country was done by the then military ruler and President Ayub Khan who promulgated the Press and Publication Ordinance (PPO) in 1962. The law empowered the authorities to confiscate newspapers, close down news providers, and arrest journalists. Using these laws, Ayub Khan nationalised large parts of the press and took over one of the two largest news agencies. The other agencies was pushed into severe crisis and had to seek financial support from the government. Pakistani Radio and Television, which was established in 1964 was also brought under the strict control of the government.

More draconian additions were made to the PPO during the reign of General Zia-Ul-Haq in the 1980s. According to these new amendments, the publisher would be liable and prosecuted if a story was not to the liking of the administration even if it was factual and of national interest. These amendments were used to promote Haq's Islamist leanings and demonstrated the alliance between the military and religions leaders. Censorship during the Zia years was direct, concrete and dictatorial. Newspapers were scrutinised; critical or undesired sections of an article censored. In the wake of Zia-ul-Haq's sudden death and the return of democracy, the way was paved to abate the draconian media laws through a revision of media legislation called the Revised PPO (RPPO).

From 2002, under General Pervez Musharraf, the Pakistani media faced a decisive development that would lead to a boom in Pakistani electronic media and paved the way to it gaining political clout. New liberal media laws broke the state's monopoly on the electronic media. TV broadcasting and FM radio licenses were issued to private media outlets.

The military's motivation for liberalising media licensing was based on an assumption that the Pakistani media could be used to strengthen national security and counter any perceived threats from India. What prompted this shift was the military's experience during the two past confrontations with India. One was the Kargil War and the other was the hijacking of the India Airliner by militants. In both these instances, the Pakistani military was left with no options to reciprocate because its electronic media were inferior to that of the Indian media. Better electronic media capacity was needed in the future and thus the market for electronic media was liberalised.

The justification was just as much a desire to counter the Indian media power, as it was a wish to set the media "free" with the rights that electronic media had in liberal, open societies. The military thought it could still control the media and harness it if it strayed from what the regime believed was in the national interest - and in accordance with its own political agenda.

This assessment however proved to be wrong as the media and in particular the new many new TV channels became a powerful force in civil society. The media became an important actor in the process that led to fall of Musharraf and his regime. By providing extensive coverage of the 2007 Lawyer's Movement's struggle to get the chief justice reinstated, the media played a significant role in mobilising civil society. This protest movement, with millions of Pakistanis taking to the streets in the name of having an independent judiciary and democratic rule, left Musharraf with little backing from civil society and the army. Ultimately, he had to call for elections. Recently, due to a renewed interplay between civil society organisations, the Lawyers' Movement and the electronic media, Pakistan's new President, Asif Ali Zardari had to give in to public and political pressure and reinstate the chief justice. The emergence of powerful civil society actors was unprecedented in Pakistani history. These could not have gained in strength without the media, which will need to continue and play a pivotal role if Pakistan has to develop a stronger democracy, greater stability and take on socio-political reforms.

Whether Pakistan's media, with its powerful TV channels, is able to take on such a huge responsibility and make changes from within depends on improving general working conditions; on the military and the state bureaucracy; the security situation of journalists; media laws revision; better journalism training; and lastly on the will of the media and the media owners themselves.[1]

Legal framework[edit]

Though Pakistani media enjoy relative freedom compared to some of its South Asian neighbours, the industry was subjected to many undemocratic and regressive laws and regulations. The country was subjected to alternating military and democratic rule - but has managed to thrive on basic democratic norms. Though the Pakistani media had to work under military dictatorships and repressive regimes, which instituted many restrictive laws and regulations for media in order to 'control' it, the media was not largely affected. The laws are, however, detrimental to democracy reform, and represent a potential threat to the future of Pakistan and democracy.[1]

Constitution[edit]

The root for the article 19 freedom of expression traced from South Asia when any body was directly sentenced to death if they uttered a single word against the government. The Pakistani Constitution guarantees freedom of expression and the basic premise for media freedom. While emphasizing the state's allegiance to Islam, the constitution underlines the key civil rights inherent in a democracy and states that citizens:

Shall be guaranteed fundamental rights, including equality of status, of opportunity and before law, social, economic and political justice, and freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship and association, subject to law and public morality.

Media laws[edit]

There are a number of legislative and regulatory mechanisms that directly and indirectly affect the media. Besides the Press and Publication Ordinance (PPO) mentioned, these laws include the Printing Presses and Publications Ordinance 1988, the Freedom of Information Ordinance of 2002, the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) of 2002, the Defamation Ordinance of 2002, the Contempt of Court Ordinance of 2003, the Press, Newspapers, News Agencies and Books Registration Ordinance 2003, the Press Council Ordinance 2002, the Intellectual Property Organisation of Pakistan Ordinance 2005 and lastly the Access to Information Ordinance of 2006. Also there were attempts in 2006 for further legislation ostensibly "to streamline registration of newspapers, periodicals, news and advertising agencies and authentication of circulation figures of newspapers and periodicals (PAPRA)."

The liberalisation of the electronic media in 2002 was coupled to a bulk of regulations. The opening of the media market led to the mushrooming of satellite channels in Pakistan. Many operators started satellite and/or cable TV outlets without any supervision by the authorities. The government felt that it was losing millions of rupees by not 'regulating' the mushrooming cable TV business.

Another consequence of the 2002 regulations was that most of these were hurriedly enacted by President Musharraf before the new government took office. Most of the new laws that were anti-democratic and were not intended to promote public activism but to increase his control of the public. Many media activists felt that the new regulations were opaque and had been subject to interpretation by the courts which would have provided media practitioners with clearer guidelines.[1]

Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority[edit]

Main article: Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA, formerly RAMBO - Regulatory Authority for Media and Broadcast Organizations) was formed in 2002 to "facilitate and promote a free, fair and independent electronic media", including opening the broadcasting market in Pakistan.[22] By the end of 2009 PEMRA had:[23]

  • issued 78 satellite TV licenses;
  • issued "landing rights" to 28 TV channels operating from abroad, with more under consideration;
  • issued licenses for 129 FM radio stations, including 18 non-commercial licenses to leading universities offering courses mass communication and six licenses in Azad Jammu and Kashmir;
  • registered 2,346 cable TV systems serving an estimated 8 million households; and
  • issued six MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service), two Internet protocol TV (IPTV), and two mobile TV licenses, with more under consideration.

PEMRA is also involved in media censorship and occasionally halts broadcasts and closes media outlets. Publication or broadcast of “anything which defames or brings into ridicule the head of state, or members of the armed forces, or executive, legislative or judicial organs of the state,” as well as any broadcasts deemed to be “false or baseless” can bring jail terms of up to three years, fines of up to 10 million rupees (US$165,000), and license cancellation. In practice, these rules and regulations are not enforced.[24]

In November 2011, Pakistani cable television operators blocked the BBC World News TV channel after it broadcast a documentary, entitled Secret Pakistan.[25] However, Pakistanis with a dish receiver can still watch it and can continue to access its website and web stream. Dr. Moeed Pirzada of PTV stated that it was hypocritical of the foreign media to label it as 'suppression of the media' when the United States continues to ban Al Jazeera English and no cable operator in the US would carry the channel. He also stated that even 'democratic' and 'liberal' Indians refuse to carry a single Pakistani news channel on their cable or any Pakistani op-ed writers in their newspapers.[26]

Television[edit]

Main article: Television in Pakistan

Further information: List of Urdu language television channels

The first television station began broadcasting from Lahore on 26 November 1964. Television in Pakistan remained the government's exclusive control until 1990 when Shalimar Television Network (STN) and Network Television Marketing (NTM) launched Pakistan’s first private TV channel. Which was shut down very soon by PTV bureaucratic conspiracies. But it was of no use as til then cable TV network was already introduced in urbanized cities, like Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi. Foreign satellite TV channels were added during the 1990s.[23]

Traditionally, the government-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) has been the dominant media player in Pakistan. The PTV channels are controlled by the government and opposition views are not given much time. The past decade has seen the emergence of several private TV channels showing news and entertainment, such as GEO TV, AAJ TV, ARY Digital, HUM, MTV Pakistan, and others such as KTN, Sindh TV, Awaz TV, Kashish TV. Traditionally the bulk of TV shows have been plays or soap operas, some of them critically acclaimed. Various American, European, Asian TV channels, and movies are available to a majority of the population via Cable TV.[citation needed] Television accounted for almost half of the advertising expenditure in Pakistan in 2002.[27]

Using oppressive laws the government has also banned or officially silenced popular television channels. The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has been used to silence the broadcast media by either suspending licenses or by simply threatening to do so. In many cases these channels were shifted to obscure numbers in channel line-up. In addition, media is also exposed to propaganda from state agencies, pressured by powerful political elements and non-state actors involved in the current conflict.[1] A number of channels have been shut down in the past with the latest such incident involving Geo TV and other channels in the Geo TV network after a Fatwa was issued against it.[28] The shutdown came after the network attempted to air allegations on the involvement of Inter-Services Intelligence in the attempted assassination of its leading anchor Hamid Mir.[29][30][31]

Radio[edit]

Main article: Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation

See also: List of Pakistani radio channels

The government-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was formed on 14 August 1947, the day of Pakistani independence. It was a direct descendant of the Indian Broadcasting Company, which later became All India Radio. At independence, Pakistan had radio stations in Dhaka, Lahore, and Peshawar. A major programme of expansion saw new stations open at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948, and a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950. This was followed by new radio stations at Hyderabad (1951), Quetta (1956), a second station at Rawalpindi (1960), and a receiving centre at Peshawar (1960). During the 1980s and 1990s the corporation expanded its network to many cities and towns of Pakistan to provide greater service to the local people. In October 1998, Radio Pakistan started its first FM transmission.[23]

Today, there are over a hundred public and private radio stations due to more liberal media regulations. FM broadcast licenses are awarded to parties that commit to open FM broadcasting stations in at least one rural city along with the major city of their choice.

The press is much more restricted in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), where independent radio is allowed only with permission from the government.[24]

Cinema[edit]

Main article: Cinema of Pakistan

See also: List of Pakistani films, Lollywood, Pashto cinema, Kariwood, Kara Film Festival, and Cinepax

In the ‘golden days’ of Pakistani cinema, the film industry churned out more than 200 films annually, today it’s one-fifth of what it used to be. The Federal Bureau of Statistics shows that once the country boasted at least 700 cinemas, this number has dwindled to less than 170 by 2005.[32]

The indigenous movie industry, based in Lahore and known as "Lollywood", produces roughly forty feature-length films a year.[citation needed]

In 2008 the Pakistani government partially lifted its 42-year ban on screening Indian movies in Pakistan.[33]

On April 27, 2016 Maalik became the first Pakistani film to be banned by the Federal Government after being cleared with Universal rating by all three Censor Boards and running in Cinemas for 18 days. The film has been banned under section 9 of the Motion Pictures Ordinance of 1979, a legislation which is redundant after the 18th Constitutional Amendment, where Censorship of films is no longer a Federal subject. Maalik (Urdu مالک) is a 2016 Pakistani Political, thriller film made by Ashir Azeem. The film was released on 8 April 2016 in cinemas across Pakistan. میں پاکستان کا شہری پاکستان کا مالک ھوں, the film extols the principle of Government of the people, by the people and for the people. Maalik is the desire of a common Pakistani for freedom, democracy and justice in a country that has been hijacked by the feudal elites after the departure of the British from the subcontinent and who continues to rule and mismanage an impoverished nation, while amassing huge personal fortunes for themselves. The film was banned in Pakistan by the Federal Government on April 27, 2016 for endangering democracy.

Newspapers, news channels, and magazines[edit]

Further information: List of newspapers in Pakistan, News channels in Pakistan, and List of magazines in Pakistan

In 1947, only four major Muslim-owned newspapers existed in the area now called Pakistan: Pakistan Times, Zamindar, Nawa-i-Waqt, and Civil-Military Gazette. A number of Muslim papers and their publishers moved to Pakistan, including Dawn, which began publishing daily in Karachi in 1947, the Morning News, and the Urdu-language dailies Jang and Anjam. By the early 2000s, 1,500 newspapers and journals existed in Pakistan.[34]

In the early 21st century, as in the rest of the world, the number of print outlets in Pakistan declined precipitously, but total circulation numbers increased.[citation needed] From 1994 to 1997, the total number of daily, monthly, and other publications increased from 3,242 to 4,455, but had dropped to just 945 by 2003 with most of the decline occurring in the Punjab Province. However, from 1994 to 2003 total print circulation increased substantially, particularly for dailies (3 million to 6.2 million). And after the low point in 2003 the number of publications grew to 1279 in 2004, to 1997 in 2005, 1467 in 2006, 1820 in 2007, and 1199 in 2008.[35]

Newspapers and magazines are published in 11 languages; most in Urdu and Sindhi, but English-language publications are numerous.[citation needed] Most print media are privately owned, but the government controls the Associated Press of Pakistan, one of the major news agencies. From 1964 into the early 1990s, the National Press Trust acted as the government's front to control the press. The state, however, no longer publishes daily newspapers; the former Press Trust sold or liquidated its newspapers and magazines in the early 1990s.[34]

The press is generally free and has played an active role in national elections, but journalists often exercise self-censorship as a result of arrests and intimidation by government and societal actors. The press is much more restricted in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), where no newspapers are published, and in Azad Kashmir, where publications need special permission from the regional government to operate and pro-independence publications are generally prohibited.[24]

Press Council and newspaper regulation[edit]

Prior to 2002, News Agencies in Pakistan were completely unregulated. Established under the Press Council of Pakistan Ordinance in October 2002, the body operates on a semi-autonomous nature along with an Ethical Code of Practice signed by President Musharraf. It is mandated with multi-faceted tasks that range from protection of press freedom to regulatory mechanisms and review of complaints from the public.

However, the Press Council never came into operation due to the reservations of the media organisations. In protest over its establishment, the professional journalists organisations refrained from nominating their four members to the Council. Nevertheless, the chairman was appointed, offices now exist and general administration work continues. This has led the government to review the entire Press Council mechanism.

The Press Council Ordinance has a direct link to the Press, Newspapers, News Agencies and Books Registration Ordinance (PNNABRO) of 2002. This legislation deals with procedures for registration of publications of criteria of media ownerships.

Among the documents required for the permit or 'Declaration' for publishing a newspaper is a guarantee from the editor to abide by the Ethical Code of Practice contained in the Schedule to the Press Council of Pakistan Ordinance. Though the Press Council procedure has made silenced or paralysed, these forms of interlinking laws could provide the government with additional means for imposing restrictions and take draconian actions against newspapers. The PNNABRO, among many other requirements demands that a publisher provides his bank details. It also has strict controls and regulations for the registering procedure. It not only demands logistical details, but also requires detailed information on editors and content providers.

Ownership of publications (mainly newspapers and news agencies) is restricted to Pakistani nationals if special government permission is not given. In partnerships, foreign involvement cannot exceed 25 percent. The law does not permit foreigners to obtain a 'Declaration' to run a news agency or any media station.[1]

News agencies[edit]

Pakistan's major news agencies include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcdefghij"Media in Pakistan: Between radicalisation and democratisation in an unfolding conflict"Archived 29 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine., International Media Support, July 2009, 56 pages.
  2. ^ abcFreedom of The Press 2014 - Pakistan. Freedom House. 
  3. ^"Pakistan Impunity Campaign". IFJ. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. 
  4. ^"Another brutal year for journalists in Pakistan". IFJ. 
  5. ^World Report 2014(PDF). Human Rights Watch. 2014. pp. 366–372. 
  6. ^Amnesty Report 2013 - Pakistan. Amnesty International. 2014. 
  7. ^Press Freedom Index 2014. Reporters without Borders. 2014. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. 
  8. ^"Rs26 billion corruption: NAB given 3 months to probe steel mills case", Azam Khan, The Express Tribune, 17 May 2012.
  9. ^"National Insurance Company Limited Scandal". www.dawn.com. Retrieved 30 September 2017. 
  10. ^"$500m corruption in PIA, says PTI", Pakistan Today, 26 February 2012.
  11. ^"Railways’ 2009-10 audit highlights massive corruption and losses", Irfan Bukhari, Pakistan Today. 22 November 2010.
  12. ^http://dawn.com/tag/hajj-corruption-case/Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^"Arrests made, warrants issued in Nato container case", Dawn Media Group, 1 July 2010.
  14. ^" US starts probe into rental power projects scam ", Ansar Abbasi, The News International, 23 June 2012.
  15. ^"Ephedrine Quota Case"Archived 26 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Awaz Internet TV.
  16. ^"Pakistani media’s fight against corruption: A Case Study for Afghan Media", Mokhtar Wafayi and Haris Bin Aziz, The Express Tribune, 23 July 2012.
  17. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2015. 
  18. ^"Journalists in danger", Reporters Without Borders, 30 October 2012.
  19. ^Journalist’s secret fund List, Constitution Petition No.105/2012, No. 104/2012, No. 53/1012, and No. 117/2012, Supreme Court of Pakistan, 22 April 2013.
  20. ^"Pakistan-United States Journalists Exchange"Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine., East-West Center (Honolulu).
  21. ^http://www.icfj.org/our-work/center-excellence-journalism-cej
  22. ^Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority Ordinance 2002 as Amended in 2007Archived 22 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine., 19 July 2007.
  23. ^ abcPERMA Annual Report 2009[permanent dead link], Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority, 22 December 2009.
  24. ^ abc"Country report: Pakistan (2010)", Freedom of the Press 2010, Freedom House, 27 April 2010.
  25. ^"Pakistan blocks BBC World News TV channel". BBC News. November 29, 2011. 
  26. ^"Who Says BBC Is Banned In Pakistan?", Facebook, 1 December 2011.
  27. ^(PDF)https://web.archive.org/web/20071006112718/http://www.warc.com/LandingPages/Data/NewspaperTrends/PDF/Pakistan.pdf. Archived from the original(PDF) on 6 October 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  28. ^"Cable operators urge PEMRA to shut down Geo", The Express Tribune, 17 May 2014.
  29. ^"Pakistan's Geo News becomes latest target in blasphemy accusation trend", Jon Boone, The Guardian, 22 May 2014.
  30. ^"Pakistan Is Asked to Shut Down News Channel", Declan Walsh and Salman Masoodapril, New York Times, 22 April 2014.
  31. ^"Pakistan’s most popular Geo channels shut down", Ahmad Noorani, The News International, 22 May 2014.
  32. ^"In-depth: Pakistan’s film industry and cinema culture", Sara Faruqi, Dawn, 15 December 2010.
  33. ^"The India-Pakistan Thaw Continues", Simon Robinson, Time, 10 March 2008.
  34. ^ abPress Reference: Pakistan, Advamag, Inc. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  35. ^Newspapers and periodicals by language and province 1999 to 2008Archived 13 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Provincial Public Relation Departments, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan, 27 April 2009.

External links[edit]

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The role of Media in Good governance

The role of media in good governance

Who will guard the guardians?
Latin proverb
Governments exist to guard the person and property of its people. However, often governments themselves turn into tyrants. It is hence, important to erect institutions to check government’s power. A free media can play a great role in promoting good governance and in keeping the government within bounds. In the absence of independent media, good governance cannot exist. In the global context and in Pakistan, good governance is closely linked to government and media partnership to promote good governance and to keep government from abusing her authority.

Good governance is the extent to which public institutions conduct public affairs fairly and manage public resources judiciously. Public institutions like parliament and senate exist to deliberate on issues of national interest. People expect their politicians to think of the welfare of their constituencies. Good governance means that the government is responsible enough in carrying out the function of the country with diligence. The measure of good governance is prosperity of people, smooth functioning of government departments and the electoral process, and a general efficiency in the machinery of the state.

Good governance is only as good as the governing people. Corruption, nepotism, apathy, and vested interests are a plague to proper functioning of the state. With the increase of moral vices good governance decreases. With the decrease in good governance, the trust of people in the government decrease. Along with the trust deficit, the economy and stability of the state are also put at risk. These conditions are far from the ideals of good governance. Good governance demands that the state cater solely to the needs of her people.

United Nations defines good governance as a kind of governance which is based on consensus and participation of people. Consensus of people on national and provincial policy is pivotal to the objectivity of good governance. With the input of all segments of the society on a matter, any issue is sure to be resolved amiably.

Good governance also stands for the upholding of law and order. Law and order are the basic requisite for a state’s proper functioning. Without implementing the writ of the state, good governance is a far cry. E.g. failure of governments to establish their writ in Sudan, Libya, Syria, and Pakistan are examples of the absence of law and order and consequently, absence of good governance.

Effective and efficient government and its administrative institutions give rise to good governance. Corrupt, sluggish, inept, and nepotism ridden departments are neither effective nor are they efficient in carrying out their duties. Such behavior results in nuisance of public at large and gives decreases good governance.

According to UNO, another major component of good governance is the transparency of the functioning of government. Transparency insures that the government is indeed looking out for the benefit of the people and is not looting public resources for their own benefit. Transparency in all matters of political and administrative matters of the government is vital for giving credence to good governance.

In the absence of consensus, participation, and accountability, governments rule with tyranny and oppression. Soon the fabric of society deteriorates and the state succumbs to anarchy.

In 1625, the British beheaded their king for not paying heed to their demands. It is not that the king was powerless. He had an army, but his rule was tyrannical and despotic. He did not govern the people justly. Hence, people revolted and claimed his head. Similarly, in 1782 the French revolution took place due to centuries of lack of good governance. People were brutally oppressed socially, religiously, and economically. They did not have any voice in the parliament. The utter lack of representation, voting, and subjugation resulted in abject misery for the common people. They were hungry and angry. Finally they revolted and beheaded both the king, Louis XIV and the queen, Maria Annetoine. Lack of good governance also proved fatal for the Czar of Russia. During the first World War 1914-1918, Russian revolution broke out which resulted in the annihilation of the whole family of Czar. Thus, lack of catering to the needs of the people and living in opulence at the cost of the poorest could not stop even the strongmen of Britain, France, and Russia, from destruction.

Good governance is the mirror of the socio-religio-economic independence of the people. It is wrong to assume that with economics prosperity alone, good governance can be achieved. Had that been the case, rich Arab countries would not have fallen under the spell of the Arab spring. Even Saudi Arabia, the richest Arab country, is struggling to contain the germs of revolt despite her enormous economy. Wherever there is lack of democratic institutions, good governance cannot proceed.

Good governance is the outcome of democracy. There is a close relationship between democracy and good governance. Democracy can only thrive in a society with free media and politicians working side by side. Throughout the world, the countries with higher democracy score higher on good governance.
Media and government function in a close orchestra. Media brings to the light plights of the people and workings of the government. The government then, intervenes and corrects mistakes and mischiefs of government. They both work to remove impediments in the path of good governance.

The role of media in good governance is indispensable. Media is not just a medium for propagation of information and news to the masses, but it is also the watchdog of national interests. Media keeps a close eye on the functioning of the government. It informs the government about the plight of the people. Similarly, it also allows people to know the operation of the government.

Media has its roots deep in the masses. Media reaches to the farthest corners of the country and reports on every notable event. In this way media is more close to the people than their politicians. Media acts as a messenger between the government and the people. Hence its role in good governance is undisputable.

Media reports factual news. Accurate and reliable information helps the government function properly. Consequently, media reports back to the masses the steps taken by the government. E.g. in 2012 during the dengue epidemic, media provided accurate information to the government on hourly and daily basis. The government concentrated her efforts on areas hit hardest. Similarly, media became mouthpiece of government in propagating preventive measures from dengue virus.

Media also aids good governance by performing her duties objectively, fairly. Media reports events and happenings with professional objectivity. It neither hides facts nor presents selective facts. Media’s role is to remain impartial and report the news as is. In this way it aids in good governance.

An important aspect of media’s role in promoting good governance is the
subject of its report. Conscience media reports on violence, tyranny and oppression of the masses. It voices the concern of the underprivileged. Media’s role in expressing the misery of people of Joseph colony in Lahore is an example of media’s role in good governance. Hence it does not become a mere mouthpiece of the vested interest groups. In favor of the masses, free and independent media provides harsh critique on elements of coercion in the society.

A free and independent media can further help good governance by playing an active role in the electoral process. By highlighting both the achievement and failures of elected representatives, media allows people to take informed decisions while selecting their future representative in elections. With reporting objectively on irregularities in the electoral process, media shows the true face of certain politicians. Media’s projection of politicians in their true colors aids immensely in removing nefarious segments from electoral process. Media believes that vote is a dialogue between government and people. Hence it acts as a legitimate relationship builder between the people and their representatives.

Checking corruption and holding public officials accountable are the hallmarks of a free media. Media highlights financial embezzlements, kickbacks, graft, and nepotism committed by government. Media pressurizes National Accountability Bureau NAB for swift action against corrupt officials. The role of media in bringing down President Nixon in the Watergate scandal is an example of the pervasive power of media. It aims to conserve national resources and saves public money from plundering.

Good governance through free media is more effective if media’s coverage is not only urban centered. Far outreach to the distant villages and dwellings enables voices from all corners to be heard. Reciprocally the voice of the government reaches to the farthest corner.

Radio communication is still the most widespread medium of propagation of news throughout the country. Its power was rightly used by Hitler to propagate German superiority into the hearts of German soldiers and civilian alike. Even Tehrik e Taliban Pakistan TTP uses illegal radio channels to further its cause. This allows the spread of message to a large populace at low cost and high coverage. Conversely, governments can use mass media like radio to reach out to its people and propagate the message of brotherhood and peace.

Media promotes good governance through generating dialogue. A dialogue between different stake holders helps foster a friendly environment where different segments of society may exchange views. It acts as a go between government and people. In absence of any meaningful dialogue between the two, misgivings sprout among the masses which leads to friction, as witnessed in the Arab spring.

However, media’s role in good governance can only be possible with the independence of media per se. media as a lapdog of the state serves the interest of the few. It covers up government misdeeds and hides its atrocities from pubic knowledge. Media in collusion with the government may feed falsehood and induce indoctrination for its own ends, thus subverting good governance and transparency. Example of media’s cover up of Bengal famine of 1943 is a testimony to this.

Media is prone to government censorship and intimidation. Journalists are routinely harassed and stopped from pursuing issues which might expose ill deeds of the government. Journalists killing are inimical to media’s functioning. Pakistan is rated 2nd in the world in journalist deaths after Afghanistan. Media is hence hampered from performing her duties dutifully towards promoting good governance.

State control of media as in the case of Iran, China, North Korea and even pre 2001 Pakistan, does little to promote good governance. Media can neither remain objective and impartial in reporting events nor can it serve as a critic of government’s workings. Without the ability to speak its mind, media cannot remain a functional organ.

Democracy can flourish only in the presence of a free and conscience media. Dan Brown considers media to be the right arm of anarchy. Media can be a force of both positive and negative forces. For good governance to flourish, it is imperative that media remains positive. A reciprocal relation thus exists between good governance and media functioning. Both complement one another in functioning properly.

Pakistan has witnessed both media censorship and a new era of media independence since 2001. Masses remained largely ignorant during media censorship period, especially during military regimes. Hence good governance is lowest during periods of media blackouts.
With independence of media and the launch of a multitude of new TV and radio channels, government has become more prone to scrutiny from various quarters of public. Media’s relentless pursuit of the manner in which government functions forces government to think wisely before pursuing a line of action.

However, a utopian media does not exist either in the world or in Pakistan. Media is plagued internally and externally. Knowing that it can pose a formidable foe and that it can greatly influence public opinion, media is tempted to use her power to perpetuate her own agenda. Media independence does facilitate good governance. However, with great power comes great responsibility. Media ought to reflect national consensus and not propagate her own inclinations.

Pakistani media has grown with leaps and bounds during in the last decade. It has focused more on gaining independence than in fostering the professionalism required of it. Hence, Pakistani media today is not the one which would ideally be sought.

This is not to say that all hope is lost and that media is a new tyrant in its own. Media has served in promoting governance many a times. It has helped in liberating judiciary in 2007; it has thrown light on mega scandals ranging from irregularities in Hajj operations to NLC scams. It has performed a commendable role in elections of both 2008 and 2013. Its moment to moment coverage of the events leading to the elections, during the election process, and the follow up of elections has helped masses develop informed decision. It has raised awareness on prevention of dengue epidemic and on the need to conserve gas and electricity. Hence, media has done her fair share in promoting good governance in various ways.

However, despite her commendable efforts, media has been known to promote the agenda of the political parties to whom it owes her allegiance. This mars the transparency required off her. It is important to realign media on lines of national objectives.

Media ought to be purged from allegiances to all vested interest groups including political parties and financial circles. By doing so, media can focus on pursuing happenings objectively and without duress. It can also help in allowing her to scrutinize government as her own hands would be clean.
In promoting good governance media should realign her goals away from projecting sensationalist news towards morally and politically relevant events. With functioning as a watchdog of public interest and serving as a constant reminder to government regarding ailments of the society, media can play a significant role in promoting good governance.

Media and government nexus ought to collaborate closely to address societal issues and to raise awareness on issues on political relevance and economic prudence. An independent media can be a great asset to further nationalist agenda and policies for the benefit of the people.

Pithily, it can be argued that good governance is greatly contingent on the proper and ethical functioning of the free media. Good governance is the ability of the government to conduct public affairs properly and to spend public resources prudently. A free media can help navigate government policies towards achieving the goal of good governance. Media is the voice of the people. It is very important for the government to feel the pulse of public. It is only independent mass media which can serve this purpose. Hence media is indispensable for both democracy and good governance.
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